Intelligence and Aptitude Exam Questions Class 12 Psychology

Exam Questions Class 12

Please see Chapter 1 Intelligence and Aptitude Exam Questions Class 12 Psychology below. These important questions with solutions have been prepared based on the latest examination guidelines and syllabus issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. We have provided Class 12 Psychology Questions and answers for all chapters in your NCERT Book for Class 12 Psychology. These solved problems for Intelligence and Aptitude in Class 12 Psychology will help you to score more marks in upcoming examinations.

Exam Questions Chapter 1 Intelligence and Aptitude Class 12 Psychology

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question. What is self report?
Answer : Self report is a method in which a person provides factual information about himself/ herself and opinions, beliefs etc. she/he holds.

Question. What are aptitude tests?
Answer : (i) Aptitude tests are meant to measure an individual’s potential which in turn helps to predict future performance.
(ii) Aptitude tests are available in two forms: Independent (specialized) aptitude tests. For example, typing aptitude test or mechanical aptitude test and Multiple (generalized) aptitude tests, for example- Differential Aptitude Test.

Question. What is situationist perspective of human behaviour?
Answer : The situationist perspective views human behaviour as resulting from interaction of external and internal factors. It is product of traits and environmental factors.
This approach believes that external factors play more important role to determine individual differences.

Question. What is mental age?
Answer : (i) The concept of Mental age (MA) was given by Alfred Binet.
(ii) It refers to a measure of intellectual functioning expressed in terms of age.

Question. What is CAS?
Answer : J.P. Das and Naglieri have developed a battery of tests, known as Cognitive Assessment System (CAS).
(i) It consists of verbal as well as non-verbal tasks that measure basic cognitive functions.
(ii) These are independent of schooling.
(iii) The battery of test is meant for individuals between 5 and 18 years of age.
(iv) It measures intelligence of normal as well as of retarded children.

Question. What is intelligence?
Answer : (i) According to Wechsler, intelligence is a global capacity to think rationally, deal effectively and act purposefully.
(ii) According to Binet, intelligence is an ability to reason well, to judge well and to understand well.

Question. What is aptitude?
Answer : Aptitude is a combination of characteristics indicative of an individuals potential to acquire some specific skills with training. For example, possession of certain qualities in different proportion to become a dancer or a computer programmer. It is individual teachability.

Question. How Sternberg’s Concept of Intelligence is different from other concepts?
Answer : According to Sternberg, intelligence is not only adaptation, directional ability, comprehension and self-evaluation, it also improves activity like shaping and selecting the environment. Sternberg emphasised that intelligence does not simply mean possessing certain abilities but also the use of these abilities in real life situations.

Question. What is interest?
Answer : Interest refers to what one enjoys doing. It is an individual’s preference for engaging in one or more specific activities relative to others. e.g., Interest Inventory developed by NCERT, Comprehensive Interest Schedule (CIS).

Question. What is ‘Planning’ in Intelligence according to J.P. Das?
Answer : (i) Planning is concept of PASS model.
(ii) Planning refers to the generation of plans or problems. It involves goal setting, strategy selection and performance monitoring.
(iii) It allows the individual to think of possible course of actions, implement them, evaluate their effectiveness and, if the plan does not work, modify it.

Question. What do you mean by individual differences?
Answer : (i) Individual differences refer to distinctiveness and variations among people’s characteristics.
(ii) Different traits can exist in varying degrees in an individual.
(iii) Each one of us is unique as we possess a novel or typical combination of various traits.

Question. What is personality?
Answer : According to Allport, personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems which determine his/her characteristic pattern of behaviour and thought.

Question. Mention main characteristics of a bell-shaped curve.
Answer : (i) Bell-shaped curve involves symmetrical distribution i.e., the left half of the curve is a mirror image of the right half.
(ii) It is a Uni Modal distribution.
(iii) The values of mean, median and mode all coincide.
(iv) The curve never touches the X-axis. It is asymptotic.

Question. What is a psychological test?
Answer : Psychological test is an objective and standardized measure of an individual’s mental and behavioural characteristics.

Question. What is an intelligence test?
Answer : Intelligence tests are standardized tools which provide a global measure of a person’s general cognitive competence including the ability to profit from schooling.

Question. What is an interview?
Answer : Interview is verbal interaction between respondent and a researcher to gather information about the respondent.
(i) It is a purposeful conversation in face-to-face situation.
(ii) Interview may be structured or may be unstructured.

Question. How individual differences are useful for the society?
Answer : (i) Individual differences make the world beautiful, purposeful and goal directed.
(ii) Different people have different needs and to satisfy the different needs, different types of skills are required. That is why variability is a fact of nature which helps in adaptation.

Question. Differentiate between talent and giftedness.
Answer : Talent is a narrow term. It refers to remarkable ability in a specific field.
(i) The highly talented are called ‘prodigies’. Giftedness is an exceptional general ability shown in superior performance in a wide variety of areas.

Question. What do you mean by psychological assessment?
Answer : Psychological Assessment uses systematic testing procedures to evaluate abilities, behaviours and personal qualities of individuals. Our assessment may be formal or informal.
Formal assessment is objective, standardized and organized. Informal assessment varies from case to case and from one assessment to another and therefore is open to subjective interpretations.

Question. What do you mean by values?
Answer : Values are enduring beliefs about an ideal mode of behaviour. It deals with do’s and dont’s. It is an important attribute of human personality which has a strong evaluative and ‘ought to be’ aspect.

Question. What is Contextual Intelligence?
Answer : (i) Contextual intelligence is a concept of Triarchic theory given by Sternberg.
(ii) Contextual intelligence refers to ‘Street Smartness’ or ‘Situationally Smart’.
(iii) It is the effective management of the business of everyday life.
(iv) People high on contextual intelligence remain practical and down to earth in life.

Question. Why does the behaviour of an individual vary from situation to situation?
Answer : The behaviour of an individual varies from situation to situation because although our behaviours are influenced by our personal traits but it is also influenced by situational factors. Situations and circumstances in which one is placed influences person’s behaviour.

Question. What is Buddhi?
Answer : (i) Buddhi according to J.P. Das is the knowledge of one’s self.
(ii) It is based on conscience, will and desire.
(iii) The Notion of Buddhi contains combination of cognitive, affective and motivational aspects of personality.

Question. What is observation?
Answer : (i) Careful perception is observation.
(ii) It involves systematic, organized and objective procedures to record behavioural phenomenon occurring naturally in real life situation.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Differentiate between interpersonal and intra-personal intelligence.
Answer : Inter-personal Intelligence:
(i) Sensitive to understand others, behaviour.
(ii) It is understanding the motives, feelings and the behaviour of others.
(iii) Example: Psychologists, politicians, social workers.
Intra-personal Intelligence:
(i) Awareness of one’s own feeling, motives and desires.
(ii) This refers to the knowledge of one’s internal strengths and limitations.
(iii) Example: Philosophers, spiritual leaders.
Psychologists, counsellors and religious leaders have dominance of both inter-personal as well as intra-personal types of intelligence.

Question. Mention some characteristics of emotionally intelligent person.
Answer : (i) Emotionally intelligent person can perceive others emotions accurately and sensitive to one’s own feelings and emotions.
(ii) They are sensitive towards ones own emotions and thoughts while solving problems.
(iii) Emotionally intelligent persons are sensitive towards others emotions through their body language and para language.
(iv) They are able to control and regulate ones emotions and their expression to achieve harmony and peace.

Question. “No two individuals are alike.” Explain.
Answer : (i) Human beings distinctly differ in size, shape, appearance, reaction time and innumerable other aspects of our personality and behaviour.
(ii) Individual differences stand for the variations and distinctiveness among individuals.
(iii) Individual differences stand for those differences which, in their totality, distinguish one individual from another.

Question. Discuss the feeling aspect of intelligence.
What is emotional intelligence?
Answer : (i) According to Salovey and Mayer, emotional intelligence is the ability to comprehend one’s own and other’s emotions, to discriminate among them and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions.
(ii) It is a cluster of abilities relating to the emotional side of life.
(iii) Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to process emotional information accurately and effectively.
(iv) It is good predictor of success in life.
(v) Emotional intelligence is the ability to monitor one’s own emotion and other’s emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions.
(vi) EQ emotional Quotient in the measure of emotional intelligence.

Question. What is structure of intellect model?
Answer : (i) On the basis of more than two decades of factor analytical research, J.P. Guilford proposed a three-dimensions box-like model, which is known as Structure-of- Intellect Model.
(ii) This theory organizes intellectual traits along three dimensions: Operations— what the respondent does, Contents—the nature of the material or information on which operations are performed, and Products—the form in which information is processed by the respondents.
(iii) Guilford’s classification include 6 × 5 × 6 categories, resulting into 180 cells in the model.

Question. What is case study?
Answer : (i) Case study refers to a systematic reconstruction of the past. It is an in-depth study of the individual in terms of his/her psychological attributes, psychological history in the content of his/her psychological and physical environment.
(ii) Case studies are widely used in clinical settings to deal with problems related to maladjustment.
(iii) Case studies use interview, observation, questionnaire and psychological tests.

Question. Define giftedness. What are the characteristics of gifted children?
How gifted children can be identified?
Answer : Giftedness is exceptional general ability shown in superior performance in a wide variety of areas. It is combination of high ability, high creativity and high commitment.
Following are important characteristics of gifted children:
(i) Advanced logical thinking, questioning and problem solving behaviour.
(ii) High speed in processing information.
(iii) Superior generalisation and discrimination ability.
(iv) Advanced level of original and creative thinking.
(v) High level of intrinsic motivation and self-esteem.
(vi) Independent and non-conformist thinking.
(vii) Preference for solitary academic activities for long periods.

Question. What is integral intelligence?
Answer : (i) The term integral intelligence refers to the Indian notion of intelligence contrary to Western view of intelligence which is limited to cognitive domain only.
(ii) Indian view is more inclusive and view of intelligence in a wider perspective.
(iii) It considers the social and emotional domain as well as task performance and emphasising on the connectivity between the social and work environment.

Question. Explain two-factor theory of intelligence.
Answer : (i) Charles Spearman (1972) proposed the ‘Two Factor Theory’ of intelligence.
(ii) According to him, intelligence consists of General (’G’) and Specific (‘S’) factors.
(iii) This theory maintained that all intellectual activities share a single common factor, called ‘G’ factor characterised as mental energy.
(iv) ‘G’ is considered responsible for relationships between different human activities. Positive correlations between any two factors were attributed to ‘G’ factor.
(v) In addition to general factor, this theory also postulates a number of specific (‘S’) factors each being strictly specific to a single activity and helps to excel in that particular area.

Question. Differentiate between Simultaneous Processing and Successive Processing?
Answer : (i) The concepts are introduced by J.P. Das, Kirbi and Nagliery in their PASS model of intelligence.
(ii) Simultaneous Processing takes place when one perceives relations amongst various concepts and integrate them into meaningful patterns for comprehension.
(iii) For e.g., Raven’s progressive matrices (RPM Test)—a design is presented from which a part has been removed. Subject has to choose one of the six options that appropriately complete the design.
(iv) Simultaneous processing helps in grasping the meaning and the relationship between the given variables.
(v) Successive Processing takes place when one is able to arrange all the information serially.
(vi) Each step in the series helps to understand the next step, i.e., one recall leads to another recall—e.g., learning of digits and letters and multiplication tables.

Question. Elaborate the status of intelligence testing in India.
Answer : The development of intelligence tests in India has for long remained one of the fascinating and popular academic pursuits.
(i) The first systematic attempt to standardize a test of intelligence was Binet’s intelligence test which was adopted by Dr. Rice in Urdu and Punjabi in 1930’s.
(ii) Mahalanobis also attempted to standardize Binet’s test of intelligence in Bengali. Attempts were also made to develop Indian norms for some other foreign tests like WAIS, RPM and Kohs’ Block Design test and others.
(iii) The first doctorate on test construction was awarded to K.G. Desai in1954 for the development of a group test of intelligence in Gujarati.
(iv) Dr. S.M. Mohsin developed first group test of intelligence in Hindi.
(v) Some tests developed in India include Group test of intelligence by Prayag Mehta, Draw a man test by Promila Pathak, CIE Non-verbal test etc.

Question. How do psychologists characterize and define intelligence?
Answer : Psychological motion of intelligence is quite different from the common sensed motion of intelligence.
Generally people saw intelligence as mental alertness, ready art, quickness in learning and ability to understand relationships.
Oxford dictionary explained intelligence as the power of perceiving, learning understanding and knowing.
Accordingly Alfred Binet also used these attributes and defined intelligence as ability to judge well, understand well and reason well.
Later Wechsler gave a comprehensive definition in terms of its functionality, i.e., its value for adaptation to environment. He defined intelligence as “the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully and to deal effectively with his/her environment.”
Present day psychologists such as Gardner and Sternberg emphasized that “Intelligent individual not only adapts to the environment, but actively modifies or shapes it.”
Sternberg views intelligence as “ the ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture.”

Question. What are the methods used for Psychological assessment?
Answer : Several methods are used for psychological assessment. Some of them are:
(i) Psychological Tests: There are objective and standardized measure of an individual’s mental and/or behavioural characteristics.
1. These objective tests have been developed to measure all the dimensions of psychological attributes. e.g., intelligence, aptitude etc.
2. Psychological tests are widely used for clinical diagnosis, guidance, personnel selection, etc.
3. Projective tests have also been developed for assessment of personality.
(ii) Interview: Interview is purposeful conversation seeking information from a person on a one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many or many-to-one basis.
1. It may be structured or unstructured.
(iii) Case-Study:
1. Case studies are an in-depth study of the individual in terms of is/her psychological attributes, and physical environment.
2. These are based on data generated by different methods, e.g., interview, observation, questionnaire, psychological tests, etc.
3. Case study is reconstruction of the past.
(iv) Observation: Observation involves implying systematic, organized and objective procedures to record behavioural phenomena occurring naturally in real time.
1. The major problems with observational methods are that the observer has little control over the situation and the reports may suffer from subjective interpretations of the observer.
2. It is very time consuming and requires profession expertise.
(v) Self-report: Self-report is a method in which a person provides factual information about himself/herself and/or opinion, beliefs etc. that he/she holds. This information can be obtained by an interview schedule, questionnaire, a psychological test etc.

Question. What is creativity?
Answer : (i) Creativity refers to the ability to thinks in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.
(ii) Creativity is reality-oriented, appropriate, constructive and socially desirable.
(iii) Individual’s vary in terms of the level and the areas in which they exhibit creativity.
(iv) It may be related to simple occupations and may be higher levels i.e., related to the artists, the scientists, the inventors etc., however they are not working at the same level.
(v) Creativity may be doing things differently. It is working on what has already been done earlier by way of modifications, by putting things in new perspectives or to new use.
(vi) It is determined by both heredity and environment. Limits of the creative potential are set by heredity. Environmental factors stimulate the development. e.g., Motivations, commitment, family support, peer influences, opportunities etc.

Question. Which of the two, IQ or EQ, do you think would be more related to success in life and Why?
Answer : (i) IQ is a good predictor of potential.
(ii) EQ is a good predictor of success.
– Researchers had proved that—EQ helps in dealing with students who are stressed and face challenges of the outside world.
– It improves the academic performance.
– It is very useful in preparing students to face the challenges of life outside the classroom.
– They are less anti-social and more co-operative.

Question. What are the uses of aptitude tests?
Answer : Aptitude refers to special capacity or capacities. Tests designed to measure capacities, i.e., to predict what one can accomplish with training are called aptitude tests. They serve some useful purposes:
1. Aptitude tests measure mere specific abilities: Mechanical aptitude tests measure various types of eye-hand co-ordination.
2. Selection: Aptitude tests are used for employee selection. They test specific abilities required for a particular job.
3. Career guidance: Aptitude tests also provide career guidance to the student. Aptitude tests help them to select a proper career by discovering the abilities they possess.
4. Prediction: Aptitude tests are used to predict success in various specific professions.

Question. What is mental retardation?
Answer : The term mental retardation refers to intellectual functioning that is considerably below average combined with varying degrees of difficulty in meeting the demands of everyday life. In shorts it is a deficit in potential.
The American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) views mental retardation as “significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive and manifested during the developmental period.”
People are appropriately regarded as mentally retarded if—
• they attain IQ’s below 70 on an appropriate intelligence test.
• it is deficit in potential.
• their adaptive skills are inadequate to cope with the ordinary daily tasks. On the basis of low IQ alone, over two percent of our population can be regarded as retarded.
• the deficits must be observed during the developmental period, i.e., between zero and eighteen years of age.
Two points are worth nothing—first, low performance on a test may also be due to defects in vision, hearing and health which may lead to categorizing a person as mentally challenged. So these conditions should be kept in mind. Second the person’s linguistic and cultural backgrounds must also be taken into consideration.

Intelligence and Aptitude Exam Questions Class 12 Psychology

Question. How psychometric approach of intelligence is different from information processing approach?
Answer : (i) The psychometric approach of intelligence is also known as the structural approach.
(ii) It considers intelligence as an aggregate of abilities. It explains an individual’s performance in term of a single index of cognitive abilities.
(iii) It focuses on the structure of intelligence, i.e., what is intelligence. e.g., the unifactor theory, the two factor theory, the theory of primary mental abilities, etc.
(iv) Information processing approach describes the processes people use in intellectual reasoning and problem solving.
(v) The major focus of this approach is on how an intelligent person acts. It emphasizes on studying cognitive functions underlying intelligent behaviour.
(vi) e.g., theory of multiple intelligences, PASS model and triarchic theory of intelligence.

Question. Differentiate between technological and integral intelligence.
Answer : (i) Technological Intelligence: It is Western view of intelligence which includes following skills:
— Generalization
— Abstraction
— Speed
— Minimal moves
— Creativity
— Mental manipulation. The concept of technological intelligence is based on urbanization, schooling, technological advancement and child rearing practising.
(ii) Integral Intelligence: It is identified as Indian view of intelligence. It includes following competencies:
(iii) Cognitive capacity: Sensitivity to context, understanding discrimination, problem solving, and effective communication
(iv) Social competence: Respect for social order, commitment to elders, the young and the needy, concern about others, recognizing others’ perspectives.
(v) Emotional competence: Self-regulation and self-monitoring of emotions, honesty, politeness, good conduct and self-evaluation.
(vi) Entrepreneurial competence: Commitment, persistence, patience, hard work, vigilance and goal-directed behaviours.

Question. Differentiate between intelligence and aptitude.
Answer : 1. Intelligence: Intelligence refers to the general ability of a person to do certain things at a given time.
(i) It is a product of heredity and environment and does not require training for the growth.
2. Aptitude:
(i) It is the potential ability of an individual to acquire specific skills.
(ii) It requires training also to capitalize the ability.
(iii) It is teachability in the individual.

Question. Discuss uses and abuses of intelligence test.
Answer : Intelligence tests serve many useful purposes if used by trained professionals.
Uses of Intelligence Test: Intelligence test assists in selection, counselling, guidance, self analysis and diagnosis.
Abuses of Intelligence Test: Intelligence test causes ill effects/misuses/abuses if used by naive testers.
(i) Poor performance on a test is stigma to children which affects adversely to the performance.
(ii) Test results may lead to discriminating practices from parents, teachers and elders.
(iii) Most of the intelligence tests favour middle class and higher class population because of culture bias.
(iv) Most of intelligence tests ignore creativity and practical aspects of life.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. Explain briefly the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner.
Answer : Gardner’s theory based on information processing approaches functions on three basic principles:
(i) Intelligence is not a single entity, there exist multiple intelligences.
(ii) The intelligences are independent from each other.
(iii) Different types of intelligences work together to provide a solution of problem. Gardner has so far proposed eight intelligences, however all individuals do not possess them in equal proportion. The particular situation or the context decides the prominence of one type of intelligence over the others.
Sternberg views intelligence as “ the ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture.”
Following are the eight types of intelligence:
1. Linguistic: This is related to reading, writing, listening, talking, understanding etc. Poets exhibit this ability better than others.
2. Logical-Mathematical: This type of intelligence deals with abstract reasoning and manipulation of symbols involved in numerical problems. It is exhibited in scientific work.
3. Spatial: This type of intelligence is involved in perceiving third dimension formation of images. It is used while navigating in space, forming, transforming and using mental images. Sailors, engineers, surgeons, pilots, care drivers, sculptors and painters have highly developed spatial intelligence.
4. Musical: Persons with musical intelligence show sensitivity to pitch and tone required for singing, playing and instrument, composing and appreciating music etc.
5. Bodily Kinesthetic: It requires the skills and dexterity for fine coordinated motor movements, such as those required for dancing, athletics, surgery, craft making etc.
6. Inter-personal: It requires understanding of motives, feelings and behaviours of other people. Sales people, politicians, teachers, clinicians and religious readers have high degree of inter-personal intelligence.
7. Intra-personal: It is related to understanding one’s self and developing a sense of identity. e.g., philosophers and spiritual leaders.
8. Naturalistic: It is related to recognizing the flora and fauna, i.e., natural world and making a distinction in the natural world. It is more possessed by hunters, farmers, tourists, students of biological sciences etc.

Question. What is creativity? How is it related to intelligence and how are creativity tests different from intelligence tests?
Answer : Creativity is the ability to think in different ways, to find causes and consequences, to connect ideas that otherwise may not seem like they can be connected.
• Creativity is an ability to perform some activity with honesty/originality or differently.
Creativity correlates well with intelligence.
Creativity requires a minimum level of intelligence. Beyond that level, intelligence is not needed to ensure creativity.
According to the research conducted by Terman in the 1920’s, which followed up gifted people throughout their adult lives, none of them were known for creativity in their fields. Other researchers have also conducted researches in their field and have found that everybody has the potential to increase their level of creativity. It was also found that both high and low levels of creativity was found in intelligent children. The same was also found in children of average intelligence.
It is not necessary that intelligent people in the conventional sense, have a high level of creativity.

Intelligence and Aptitude Exam Questions Class 12 Psychology
Intelligence and Aptitude Exam Questions Class 12 Psychology

Question. How does the Triarchic theory help us to understand intelligence?
Answer : 1. Robert J. Sternberg proposes a theory of intelligence based on information processing approach in 1985 known as the Triarchic theory of intelligence.
2. According to Sternberg, intelligence is an ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture.
3. This theory attempts to understand the cognitive processes involved in problem solving.
4. According to him there are three types of intelligences:
(i) Componential intelligence (Analytical): This dimension specifies the cognitive processes that underlie an intelligent behaviour.
This dimension serves three different functions:
(a) Knowledge acquisition components: These are the processes used in learning, encoding, combining and comparing information.
(b) Metacomponents: ‘Meta’ means higher. These are executive processes. They control monitor and evaluate cognitive processing.
(c) Performance components: These components execute strategies prepared by metacomponents to perform a task.
For example, While studying students plan the lesson chapterwise, they make schedules, categories the learning material and do integrate the information to comprehend well.
(ii) Experiential intelligence (Creative): This dimension specifies how experiences effect intelligence and how intelligence effects a person’s experiences.
(a) Experiential intelligence refers to an individual’s ability to make use of one’s past experiences to deal with novel situations creatively and effectively.
(b) This intelligence is mostly high among scientists and creative people.
(c) For example if a person is trapped in a room, he finds out a way of coming out of the room using rope or ladder etc. in a creative way. He had some knowledge of getting out from this situation by watching out a movie few years back.
(iii) Contextual intelligence (Practical): This dimension specifies the ability to deal with environmental demands on daily basis.
(a) It is individual’s ability to make use of his/her potential to deal with day-to-day life.
(b) It may be called street smartness or ‘business sense’.
(c) People high in this ability are successful in life.
• It deals with the ways people handle effectively their environmental demands and adapt to different contexts with available resources.

Question. Explain theories related to Psychometric Approach of Intelligence.
Answer : The psychometric approach considers intelligence as an aggregate of abilities. It expresses an individual’s performance in terms of a single index of cognitive abilities.
(i) Alfred Binet conceptualized intelligence as consisting of one similar set of abilities which can be used for solving all problems in individual’s life. This theory of intelligence is called uni or one-factor theory of intelligence.
(ii) Charles Spearman introduced the two-factor theory of intelligence employing a statistical method called factor analysis.
— He said that intelligence consisted of a general (g-factor) and some specific factors (s-factor).
— The g-factor includes mental operations which are primary and common to all performances.
— In addition to the g-factor, he said that there is an s-factor which is not common and help the individual to excel in a particular field.
(iii) Theory of primary mental abilities was proposed by Louis Thurston.
It says that intelligence consists of seven primary abilities. Each ability is
relatively independent from others.
These ability are: (i) Verbal comprehensions, (ii) Numerical Abilities, (iii) Spatial Relations, (iv) Perceptual Speed, (v) Word fluency, (vi) Memory, (vii) Inductive Reasoning.
(iv) Arthur Jensen proposed a hierarchical model of intelligence, consisting of abilities operating at two levels.
Level-I: associative learning in which output is more or less similar to the input.
Level-II: called cognitive competence, involves high order skills as they transform the input to produce an effective output.
(v) Structure-of-intellect-model: Proposed by J.P. Guilford.
(vi) He classifies intellectual traits among three dimensions—operations, contents and products.
(vii) Operations are what the respondent does. e.g., memorization of a poem.
(viii) Contents refer to the nature of materials or information on which intellectual operations are performed. e.g., poem is familiar or unfamiliar, learner using a particular sense modality, method use.
(ix) Products refer to the form in which information is processed by the respondent. e.g., understanding and application of the theme of poem.

Question. What extent is our intelligence the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)? Discuss.
Answer : (i) Whether intelligence is evolved or it is developed due to the environment, is a question of debate.
(ii) Lot of studies have been done to determine the role of nature and nurture.
(iii) Here we will discuss the controversy with the help of various twin studies, adoption studies and environmental studies.
On the basis of twin studies co-relation results are as follows:
(i) Identical twins reared together correlate – 0.90
(ii) Identical twins reported early in childhood and reared in different environments correlate – 0.72
(iii) Fraternal twins reared together correlate – 0.60
(iv) Siblings reared together correlate – 0.50
(v) Siblings reared apart correlate – 0.25
• Adoption Studies before the Age of 6-7 Years
These studies of adopted children show that children’s intelligence is more similar to their biological parents.
These studies provide evidence that intelligence is determined because of nature.
• Adoption Studies after the Age of 6-7 Years
According to these studies as children grew older tends to more closer to that of their adoptive parents.
Environmental Studies
Evidence for the influence of environment (Nurture) on the basis of Twin studies.
(i) The intelligence score of twins reared apart as they grew older, tends to more closer to that of their adoptive parents.
(ii) On the basis of differences in environment, children from disadvantaged homes adopted into families with higher, socio-economic status exhibit an increase in their intelligence scores.
(iii) Environmental deprivation lowers intelligence. Factors such as nutrition, good family background and quality schooling increase growth rate of intelligence.
(iv) There is general consensus among psychologists that intelligence is a product of complex interaction of heredity (Nature) and environment (Nurture).
(v) Heredity provides the potentials and sets a range of growth whereas environment facilitates the development of intelligence.

Question. Any intellectual activity involves the independent functioning of three ‘neurological systems’. Explain with reference to PASS model.
Answer : According to PASS model, theory based on information processing approach, intellectual activity involves the interdependent functioning of the three neurological systems called the functional units of the brain.
These units are responsible for:
• the arousal and attention.
• the simultaneous and successive processing.
• the planning.
Arousal and Attention
(i) State of arousal helps in attending to the stimuli.
(ii) Arousal and attention enable a person to process information.
(iii) Optimal level of arousal focuses our attention on relevant aspects of a problem.
(iv) Too much or too little arousal interferes with attention and performance.
Example: Arousal helps the individual to focus ones attention on reading, learning and revising the contents of the material to be learnt.
Simultaneous and Successive Processing:
Simultaneous Processing refers to perceiving relations amongst various concepts and integrate them into meaningful patterns for comprehension. For e.g., in Raven’s standard progressive matrices (RSPM Test) choosing appropriate pattern by comprehending relationship.
Successive Processing refers to recalling information serially so that one recall leads to another recall. For example, learning of digits and letters and multiplication tables.
1. After the information is attended to and processed, planning is activated.
2. Planning involves reaching to the target and evaluating their effectiveness. Planning allows us to think of possible courses of action and implementing them.
3. If a plan does not work, it is modified to suit the requirements of the task or the situation.
4. For example, to take a test scheduled by your teacher, you’d have to set goals, plan a time schedule of studies, get clarifications in case of problems or think of other ways to meet your goals.

Question. What is IQ? How do psychologists classify people on the bases of their IQ scores?
Answer : (i) IQ is an index of brightness.
(ii) It is the ratio of mental age to chronological age.
(iii) The concept of IQ was given by William Stern who gave the formula to calculate IQ i.e., 
MA/CA × 100
• If MA > CA Above average
MA < CA Below average
MA = CA Average
• IQ is relatively stable.
• Average IQ is 100.
• It is a good predictor of potential.
• IQ scores are distributed in a population in such a way that most people tend to fall in the middle range of the distribution.
• This can be shown in the form of following table.

Intelligence and Aptitude Exam Questions Class 12 Psychology

Question. How is creativity related to intelligence?
How creativity and creativity tests are related but different from each other?
Answer : Creativity and intelligence are positively correlated because high ability is component of creativity. A highly intelligent person may not be creative but all the creative persons are definitely high in intelligence.
(i) Creativity is the ability to produce ideas, objects, or problem solutions that are novel, appropriate and useful.
(ii) Intelligence is subset of creativity.
(iii) Terman found that persons with high IQ were not necessarily creative. The same time, creative ideas could come from persons who did not even one of those identified as gifted, followed up through out their adult life, had become well known for creativity in some field.
(iv) Researchers have found that both high and low level of creativity can be found in highly intelligent children and also children of average intelligence. The same person can be creative as well as intelligent but it is not necessary that intelligent once must be creative.
Creative tests are different from intelligence tests:
(i) Creative tests measure creative thinking ability whereas intelligence tests measure general mental ability.
(ii) Creative tests measure convergent and divergent thinking whereas intelligence test measure convergent thinking only.
(iii) Creative tests measure imagination and spontaneous expression to produce new ideas, to see new relationship, to guess causes and consequences and ability to put things in a new context. Intelligence tests measure potential.
(iv) In creative tests questions are open-ended that have no specified answers whereas intelligence tests mostly use close-ended questions.

Question. Are there cultural differences in the conceptualisation of intelligence?
Answer : Yes, culture, which is a set of beliefs, customs, attitudes and achievements in art of literature, affects the process of intellectual development.
• According to Sternberg, intelligence is a product of culture.
• Vyotsky believes that while elementary mental operations are common, higher mental activities like problem-solving and thinking are culturally produced.
• Technological Intelligence
(i) Promotes an individualistic pattern of action.
(ii) Individuals in technologically educated western societies possess this kind of intelligence.
(iii) They are well versed in skills of attention, observation, analysis, speed, moves abstraction, generalisation, creativity, Minimum moves etc.
• Integral Intelligence
(i) Intelligence in the Indian tradition is integral intelligence.
(ii) It views intelligence from a holistic perspective.
(iii) It gives equal attention to cognitive and non-cognitive processes, as well as their integration.
(iv) ‘Buddhi’ is the knowledge of one’s own self based on conscience, will and desire.
(v) It has effective, motivational as well as cognitive components. It includes:
(i) Cognitive competence (discrimination, problem-solving).
(ii) Social competence (respect for elders, concern for others, respecting opinions of others).
(iii) Emotional competence (self regulation, self monitoring).
(iv) Entrepreneurial competence commitment, persistence, patience).

Question. How intelligence is normally distributed?
All persons do not have the same intellectual capacity. How do individuals vary in their intellectual ability? Explain.
Answer : All persons do not have the same intellectual capacity. They vary in their intellectual ability. Some are exceptionally bright and some are below average. Scores of most people tend to fall in the middle range of the distribution. Rest of the scores gradually and symmetrically decline towards both the sides but never touch the X-axis.
(i) The frequency distribution for the IQ scores tends to approximate a bell-shaped curve, called the normal curve. This type of distribution is symmetrical around the central value, called the mean.
(ii) On the basis of IQ, people are classified in different groups. It is clear that only 2.2 percent people who possess above 130 IQ range are very intelligent or very superior, their IQ score is more than 130.
(iii) People falling between 90-109 IQ range are considered as average. The mean IQ score in a population is 100. People with IQ scores in the range of 90-110 have normal intelligence.
(iv) Those with IQ below 70 are suspected to have ‘mental retardation’. Mental retardation refers to sub-average intellectual functioning. The behaviour is maladaptive and manifest in four forms i.e., mild, moderate, severe and profound mental retardation. The extreme right also lie to 2.2 percent population which are known as gifted i.e., they enjoy exceptional intelligence, exceptional talent and exceptional creativity.

Intelligence and Aptitude Exam Questions Class 12 Psychology

Question. How is ‘aptitude‘ different from ‘interest‘ and intelligence?
Answer : Aptitude:
(i) Aptitude refers to combination of characteristics indicative of an individual’s potential to acquire some specific skills with training.
(ii) It is specific mental ability or teach ability of an individual to learn a particular skill.
(iii) It is the potentiality to perform a particular activity.
(iv) Aptitude is a determiner to learn a particular skill.
(i) Interest refers to preference for a particular activity or what one enjoys doing.
(ii) Interest are acquired/learnt.
(iii) Interest is a facilitator.
An individual with high scientific aptitude having strong interest in mechanical activities is more likely to be successful mechanical engineer.
(i) Intelligence is a global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully and to deal effectively with her/his environment.
(ii) Intelligence is a general mental ability.
(iii) It is product of heredity and environment.
(iv) It does not require training for the growth.

Question. Discuss various types of intelligence tests.
How can you differentiate between verbal and performance tests of intelligence?
Answer : Types of Intelligence Tests:
Individual or group tests based on contact:
Individual Test:
(i) Administered to one individual at a time.
(ii) Requires the administrator to establish a rapport with the subject and be sensitive to his/her feelings, mood and expressions during the testing sessions which provides understanding of other aspects of subjects personality.
(iii) Allows people to answer orally or in written form or manipulate the objects as per the tester’s instructions.
• Example: Stanford Binet intelligence scale, WAIS, WISSC, Alexander Pass along test.
Group Test:
(i) Administered to several individuals at a time simultaneously.
(ii) Do not allow an opportunity to be familiar with the subjects’ feelings.
(iii) Seek answers in a Multiple-choice format.
(iv) It is relatively economical and less time consuming.
(v) Example: Group Test of Intelligence by Prayag Mehta, Group Test on Intelligence by S. Jalota.
Verbal, Non-verbal and Performance Tests based on Mode of Administration: Verbal Tests:
(i) Requires subject to give verbal responses either orally or in written form.
(ii) Can be administered to literates only.
(iii) Example: CIE, Verbal Group Test, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale.
Non-verbal Test:
• Has pictures or illustrations as test items.
• Example: Ravens progressive matrices. In this test the subject examines an incomplete pattern and chooses a figure from the alternatives that will complete the pattern.
• Reduces culture biases.
• Example: SRPM, CIE Non-verbal group test of Intelligence.
Performance Test:
• Requires the subject to manipulate objects to perform the test.
• Written language is not necessary for answering the items.
• Example: Kohs’s Block designs test. Here the subject is asked to arrange the blocks in a specified period to produce a given design, Bhatia’s Battery performance test.
• Can be administered to persons from different cultures and reduce culture biases.
• Example: Draw a Man Test by Pramila Pathak, Kohs Block designs test.
Culture Biased or Culture Fair Tests based on Nature of Items used:
• Psychological tests that show a bias toward the culture in which they are developed are Culture Biased Tests.
• Tests developed in America and Europe represent an urban and middle class cultural ethos. (Middle class white subjects perform well on these tests). The items do not consider favourably to Asians and Africans.
• Culture Fair Tests: One does not discriminate against as individuals belong to different cultures.
• Non-verbal and Performance Tests reduce cultural influences.
To overcome the limitation of Culture biased tests, Culture fair tests were developed. e.g. non-verbal and performance tests are called so because people of any culture could take them. For e.g. Standard progressive Matrices and Bhatia’s Battery Performance Test.