Please refer to the Development Revision Notes given below. These revision notes have been designed as per the latest NCERT, CBSE and KVS books issued for the current academic year. Students will be able to understand the entire chapter in your class 10th Development book. We have provided chapter wise Notes for Class 10 Development as per the latest examination pattern.
Revision Notes Chapter 1 Development
Students of Class 10 Development will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 10 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.
DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF PERSONS
Landless rural labourers : – More days of work and better wages; local school is able to provide quality education for their children; there is no social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village.
Prosperous farmers from Punjab:- Assured a high family income through higher support prices for their crops and through hardworking and cheap labourers; they should be able to settle their children abroad.
Development: Growth of economy along with the improvement in the quality of life of the people like health, education etc.
Per capita income: Is the average income obtained as the ratio between National Income and Population of a country.
National income: Is the money value of final goods and services produced by a country during an accounting year.
World Development Report: Prepared by World Bank to classifying countries based on their per capita income.
Human development Index:- It is a composite Index prepared by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) through its Annual Human Development Report published every year. Major parameters such as longevity of life, levels of literacy and Per capita income are used to measure the development of countries. World countries are ranked accordingly in to Very High Developed countries, High Developed countries, Medium Developed countries and Low Developed countries.
Infant Mortality Rate: The number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live birth in that particular year.
Literacy Rate: It measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.
Net Attendance Ratio: is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
Sustainable Development: – It means development without hampering the Environment. It is the process of development that satisfies the present needs without compromising the needs of the future generation.
Body Mass Index (BMI) : One way to find out if adults are undernourished is to calculate Body Mass Index. Divide the weight of a person (in kg) by the square of the height (in metres). If this figure is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered undernourished. If this BMI is more than 25, then a person is overweight.
Census: The official enumeration of population along with certain economic and social statistics in a given territory and carried out on a specific day.
Short Answer type Questions
Question.”Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well.” Explain
- Money or higher per capita income cannot buy a pollution free environment or good health.
- Money cannot buy peace and democracy Per capital income of Maharashtra is higher than Kerala but still in lacksD behind in education and health facilities.
- In Kerala, out of 1000 children born alive,12 die before completing one year of age but in Maharashtra the proportion of children dying is 25.
Question. Mention any four characteristics of development?
- Different people have different development goals.
- What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may be even destructive for cther.
- Income is the most important component of development, but along with income, people also seek equal treatment, good health, peace ,literacy, etc.
- For development, people look at mix goals.
Question. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Ans. The issue of sustainability is important for development because development must be in tandem with the future. If natural resources are not sustained, then development will stagnate after a point of time. Exploiting resources unethically will ultimately undo the development that a country may have achieved. This is because in the future, those resources will not be available for further progress.
Question. What contributes to the human development?
- There are many economic as well as non-economic factors which contribute to the human development.
- Living a long and healthy life.
- To have education, information and knowledge. Enjoying a decent standard of living.
- Enjoying basic fundamental rights like freedom, security, education etc.
- To have equality and enjoyment of human rights.
Question. What is national development? What are the aspects covered under the national development?
Ans. National development refers to the ability of a nation to improve the lives of its citizen.
i). under national development, the government decides what would be a fair and just for all.
ii). under national development, only those programmes and policies are implemented which would benefit a large number of people.
iii). under national development, it is very important to decide about the conflicts and their solutions.
iv). under national development, we have to think whether there is a better way of doing things.
Long Answer type Questions
Question. Who publishes Human Development Report? What are the criteria used to prepare this report?
Ans. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes Annual Human Development Report every year. Major parameters such as longevity of life (Life Expectancy at birth), levels of literacy and Per capita income are used to measure the development of countries. Life expectancy at birth denotes average expected length of a person at the time of birth. Percapita income is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared and also because every dollar vvould buy the same amount of goods and services in any country. World countries are ranked accordingly in to Very High Developed countries, High Developed countries, Medium Developed countries and Low Developed countries.
Question. What is average income or per capita income? Why do we use averages? What are the limitations of per capita income?
Ans. The average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. We use averages because they are useful for comparing differing quantities of the same category. For example, to compute the per capita income of a country, averages have to be used because there are differences in the incomes of diverse people.
Its main limitations are:
- A rise in per capital income is due to rise in prices and not due to increase in physical output; it is not a reliable index of economic development. National income rises but its distribution makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.
- It excludes all non-marketed goods and services, even though they may be important for human happiness and better quality of life.
- Rise in per capital income may be due to use of modern capital intensive technology in production which may be labour displacing in nature thus adversely affecting the poor masses
- It covers only the economic aspects ignoring peace, health, environment, education, longevity, etc.