Please refer to the Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs Notes Class 12 Physical Education given below. These revision notes have been designed as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, and KVS books issued for the current academic year. Students will be able to understand the entire chapter in your class 12th Physical Education book. We have provided chapter-wise Notes for Class 12 Physical Education as per the latest examination pattern.
Revision Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs Class 12 Physical Education
Students of Class 12 Physical Education will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic-wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 12 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.
Aims and Objectives of Adaptive Physical Education
To identify the disabled children so many programmes have been conducted by the government. Some of there are corrective physical education, remedial physical education, physical therapy, corrective therapy development physical education and individual physical education.
Adaptive Physical Educations is a modified program of games, sports and other development activities that is suited to the enterest. Capacities and limitations of students and individuals with special needs. It is created for students with special needs so they can also enjoy the experience of sports and recreations. Every school has students who are differently abled and require special service to be able to realise their maximum potential.
- Through medical checkup
- The programme based on Interest and capacity of the students.
- Easy enivronment
- Proper equipment should be provided.
- Teaching strategies based on students level
- Rule should be easy.
Integrated Physical Education :
Concept and Principles : Under this one must have the knowledge of different sub topic and other utility, so that the students could be trained properly. The knowledge of integrated physical education will promote the fitness and willingness of the individuals. It will help in designing high quality programmers.
Adaptive Physical Education :
Concept and Principles there are many children who suffer from various types of disabilities like mental retardation, deafness, blindness, speech impairment etc. For such children and special programme may be organized, so that physical, musical cognitive, social and emotional abilities can be developed in them.
For successful implementation of adaptive physical education certain principles may be kept in mind such as medical examination interest and capacity of the students, appropriate equipment, proper environment, specific instructional strategies etc.
Special Olympic Bharat
This organization prepares the progress with physical and mental disability for special Olympic. At national level, they are trained to participate in 24 single and team games by the sports authority of India. This organization was established in 2001 as per the act of 1982.
This is similar to Olympic game for disabled sports person in 1960 first time it was organized in Rome. The head quarter of international para Olympic is situated at Bonn, Germany. The international para Olympic is responsible for organizing summer and winter Olympic games. At present it comprises of 176 National Para Olympic Committees.
The ‘Deaflympics’ are games for deaf atheletes. Previously they were called the International games for the Deaf. These games are organised by “The Internatinoal committee of sports for the Deaf” since the first event and they are sanctioned by Internation Olympic commttee. The deaf olympion can not be guided by sounds for example, the starter gun, bullhorn commands or refree whistles. The Deaflympics were held in paris in 1924 and were also the first ever international sporting events for athletes with disability.
The Deaflympic wintergames, was added in 1949. The games began as a small gathering of 148 atheltes. Now these games are grown into a global movement. To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of atleast 55db in their “better ear”.
Hearing aids, cochlear implant and the leke are not allowed to be used in competetion.
Deaflympions can not be guided by sounds so atternative mathods are used to address the athletes. For example the football refrees wave a flag instead of blowing a whiste, on the track races are started by using a light, instead of using a starting pistol.
Host cities (summer) Year
Sobia, Bulgaria August 2013
Samsun Tunkey July 2017
Host cities (Winth Diaflymics) March 2015
Khanty mansiysk Rissia Torino Italy 2019
Concept and need of Integrated Physical Education
Integrated Physical Educations using physical activites and games to teach others subjects. this is a new concept in the field of Physical Education. Research and studies have shown that integrating two or more subject at areas can stimulate the interest of students and hence promote the learning of each subjects. Teachers are increasing conducting activities both side and outside the classroom to teach various concepts of Science, Social science and Mathematics.
Integrated physical education is a comprehension concept. It is not only limited to physical activities, games and sports but has become a complete discipline within the past two decades the knowledge in this field has increased termendously. Due to research works, various subdisplines such as sports sociology, sports Biomechanics, Sports medicine, sports pedagogy, Exercise Physiology, Sports Psychology, Sports Philosophy and sports management, etc. Integrated physical edudcation lays emphasis on multidisciplinary learning ith the integration of its subdisciplines.
Integrated physical education provides opportunities for students to see new relationships, to transfer what they have learnt from are setting to the next and to reinforce learning in various ways.
This knowledge of integrated physiucal education would be able to help in the fitness, health and wellness of all individuals. High quality physical education programmes can be repared with the help of integrated physical education.
Concept of Inclusion
Need of Inclusion
Inclusion in physical education helps the students with disabilities to increase their social skills and in making trinds.
A child feels that he/she also belongs to the entire group of class so a feeling of belongingness is developed.
Inclusion helps a child to increase his/her motor skills and expence success with peers.
To make inclusion work, general classroom teachers, support specialist, parents and students themselve must work together to create the best educational environemnt possible.
With knowledge of inclusive practices and strategies, teachers can manage, classrooms that encourage learning and discovery among all students, regardless of physical abilities.
School principals must cooperate and share the message that all staff members, not just special education teachers, are expected to be involved in education children with disabilities.
Inclusion also requires specially trained staff. Since classroom teachers need training and ongoing support to effectively teach many types of learners, they must meet regularly with inclusion specialists.
Special education counsellors work with special need children in elimentary school, middel schools and high schools to ensure they have the support serivices they need in order to achieve their highest potential in the areas of academics, personal and social and career development.
The goods of occupational therapy for a child are to improve participation and performance of a child and all the child’s “occupation” like self care, play, school and other daily activities.
The occupational therapist well assess the child and modify the environment, or the way of doing a task to promote a better participation and independance.
Physical Education Teacher
Physical education program plays a very progressive role in imporving congitive functions and academic performance. Social skills and collaborative team work can also be enhanced through the different programs of physical education. The physical education teacher helps in exicuting these programs.
Physiotherapist the best known therapist who work with children with special needs. They use exercises to help their patients and keep the best possible use of their bodies. They also try to improve breathing to prevent the development of deformities and to slowdown the detoriation caused by some progressive diseases.
Speech therapist is know by many names like speech language pathologist, speech pathologist and speech teacher. They work with children with a variety of delays and disorders spanning from mild articulation delays to more complex disorders such as autism, down syndroms, hearing imparment, motor speech disorders and other developmental delays.
Speech teacher helps your child with speech, talking and communication.
Special Education Teacher
Special education teachers work in classrooms or resource centers that only include students with disabilities. Students with disability may attend classes with general education students also known as inclusive classrooms. special education teacher’s duties vary by the type of setting they work in, student disabilities and teacher specialty.
Objective Type Questions:
Question. “Let me win. But if I cannot win, let me be brave in the attempt”. In which game this oath is taken ?
(a) Special olympic Bharat
(d) Asian games
Ans. (a) Special olympic Bharat
Question. What is the motto of deaflymic?
(a) Spirit in motion
(b) Per ludos aequalitas
(c) Cetius, altius fortius
(d) Let me win brane in my attempt
Ans. (b) Per ludos aequalitas
Question. Speech therapist helps a child in
(c) in hancing mobility
Ans. (b) Communication
Question. Name the teacher who is specially trained to work with CWSN….
(a) Physical education teacher
(d) Special educator
Ans. (d) Special educator
Question. Cochlear implant is not allowed in
(a) Special olympics
(c) Asian games
(d) olymic games
Ans. (b) Deaflymics
Question. ‘Spirit in motion’ is the motto of
(b) Special olympic Barat
(c) Common wealth games
Ans. (a) Paralympic
Question. Deaf lymics started in
Ans. (a) 1924
Question. Whisles or guns are not used in these games…
(a) Common heath
(d) Spcecal olymic
Ans. (b) Deaflympic
Question. The head quarter of paralympics is at
(b) New york
Ans. (c) Germany
Question. In clusion is needed to….
(a) Social development of CWSN
(b) To incerease motion skills
(c) To improve academic perfermance
(d) All of these.
Ans. (d) All of these.
Short Answer Type Questions:
Question. Write a short note on the origin of Para Olympic Games.
Ans. In the second world war majority of people suffered . They lost their will power and kept remembering the horrors of wars all the time. In 1960 Rome Olympic, Sir Ludwig Collected 400 disabled Athletes and organized games and it was named Para- Olympics. Shooting was the first game to be introduced in Para Olympic games, the international Para Olympic committee is responsible for organizing summer and winter Olympic game. The head quarter IPC is situated in Bonn (Germany). The symbol of Para Olympic Games is three colours red, Blue and green flag and the motto of Para Olympic is ‘Spirit in Motion’ 2014 winter para Olympic games was successfully hosted by Russia.
Question. Describe the principles of integrated and comprehensive physical education.
Ans. (i) It should be based on the inter related sub-topics of physical education.
(ii) It should cater to the requirements of different people.
(iii) It should be capable of facing the challenges of the present and the future.
(iv) It should be capable of providing comprehensive and deep knowledge about physical education.
(v) It should motivate an individual to engage in a lifelong healthy and active lifestyle.
(vi) It should be able to develop social and emotional skill among people
Question. Write a note on special Olympic Bharat?
Ans. This organization was established in 2001, its aims is to increase the participation of differently abled person’s in games and sports. Its another objectives was to develop leadership quality and healthy. This organization organizes sports competition at state level. It also serve talented players and train them for international games. After 2002, about 23,750 participants have participated in national games. Between 1987 and 2013, a total of 671 Indian athletes participated in Olympic. They won 246 Gold medals, 265 Silver medals, 27 bronze medals and they raised the glory of the country in the world.
Today around 1 million athletes are the members of this organization and 84905 coaches train these athletes. This organization does the all round development of the players through games and sports.
Q.4 How can we implement inclusive education in physical education?
Ans. PEER TO PEER: EVERYONE’S A PLAYER, EVERYONE’S A LEADER
Special Olympics believes in the power of sport and in the power of young people to build a more inclusive world. In a high quality Inclusive Physical Education classroom students recognize their abilities to create inclusive communities as they learn to value difference and appreciate each individual’s unique gifts and talents.
Peer to peer teaching is a fundamental strategy for implementing successful Inclusive Physical Education programs, but it is important that it be implemented in a truly inclusive manner and grounded in equality.
An inclusive peer to peer teaching model provides opportunities for students of all abilities to participate as leaders in some way, reinforcing and confirming the potential of every student to lead and contribute meaningfully.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Question. Which principles are required to be followed to make the adapted physical education effective ? Explain.
Ans. 1. Medical Examination : It is very important for the success of programme related to adapted physical education. Otherwise it will be difficult to find out what kind of disability, the student is suffering from. There fore it is imperative to conduct medical examination of the students.
2. Programmes according to the interest of the students: programmes should be made keeping in mind the interest, capacity and previous experience of the students. The teachers should also have deep knowledge about it, then only they can make any successful programme.
3. Equipment should be appropriate : Students should be provided with equipments asper disability concerned for example, students suffering from visual impairment should be given a ball with bell so that they may catch the ball as it rolls because of the sound. Thus such students can make out the direction and distance of the ball.
4. Proper Environment: The play area also should be limited because of the limited speed capacity of the children for example, speech impaired children be given rest in between the games. The play area should be limited to top smaller area.
5. Modification of rules: Rules and regulation of the game and sports should be modified depending on the specific needs of students. In order to learn new skill they may be given extra time, extra effort, extra rest and 2 marks in place of 1 mark.
Thus, they might be given the opportunity for all round development.
Question. Explain the concept of Inclusion.
Ans. A defining characteristic of an excellent physical education program is that it includes students with a diverse range of abilities, needs, interests and learning styles in meaningful learning experiences. The term “Inclusive Physical Education” reflects a program where respect and acceptance of all students, specifically students with disabilities, is an essential component of the classroom environment and teaching strategies.
Inclusion is about creating a classroom in which every student is welcomed, valued, respected and enabled to reach his her full potential. In a successful Inclusive Physical Education program, all students are fully engaged in instructional activities, sharing equally and learning together. Although the activities may be modified or adapted, students with disabilities learn the same concepts, skills and content as all other students in the class. The result is educational equity and access for all students!
Inclusive Physical Education requires educators to believe in the concept that success for each student can be different The educator must be willing to modify and adapt lessons and activities to ensure that every student learns and achieves success at his own pace and according to his own abilities. Educators see the abilities of all students as contributing to the whole class. Effective teaching for students with disabilities is basically the same as effective teaching for all students.
Question. What is the role of school counsellor in special education?
Ans. 1. The role of a school counsellor is to help all students, including those with special needs, to achieve there full potential. Introducing an appropriate individualised education programme (IEP) at early age can make all the differance, not only in these children’s academic learning but in their emotional health and social adjustment and ultimately in their ability to become productive, contributing member of society.
2. Counselling sessions with specail education students.
3. Encouraging family involvement in IEP.
4. Consulling with and working with other school staff to better understand the childs spcial needs.
5. Collaborating with other school and community professionals like, teachers, school, psychologist , physical therapist and occupational thrapist etc.
6. Identifying other students who should be assessed to determine the eligibility for speical education.
Question. What is the need of inclusion in physical educaton?
Ans. Inclusion is needed for following reasons:
1. Inclusion in physical education increases social skills of students ith disabilities .
2. Inclusion is needed to increase motor skills of students with disabilities.
3. A disable student gets equal chance to participate in age appropriate activities so, it increases the confidence level.
4. Typical students get a chance to increase friendships with disable children.
5. Inclusive education provides an opprotunity to a typical students to go beyond tolerance to acceptance and advocacy.
6. Inclusive education enable a student to increase their knowledge and acceptance based on the “contact theory”. Through frequency, meaningful and pleasent interactions, changes in attitude can occur.
Question. What is the role of occupolional therapist for special need children?
Ans. 1. Self care: An occupational therapist will help a child perform and be independent in self care skills like cating, dressing, toileting, bathing and grooming.
2. Play: An occpational therapist helps children participate and intercet with others in play. They may suggest modify cations in the position, mobility aids or modified toys to help a child to play.
3. School: Occapational therapists help children participate and adcept to regular school. They may suggest aids for writing and other classroom activities to help them participate equally with other children. Children with special needs may also require special furniture to help them sit and write better.
4. Environmental modificatons: Occuapational therapists can suggest modifications in the house, school or playgroud that will help the child participate more easily. Helping the child became independent early in life, will encourage them to live independently as an adult.
5. Fine motor skills and Hand writing occupational therapists also play a role in helping a child improve their fine motor skills handwritting. They will be able to identify the specific deficits int he child and suggest activities that will help improve these skills.
6. Splinting: Occupational & learapists can also make simple splints to help the child perform activities in a better way.
Question. What is the contribution fo special education teacher in developing education plans for special need children?
Ans. 1. Assess student’s skills to determine their needs and to develop teaching plans.
2. Adapt lessons to meet the needs of students.
3. Develop Individualised education programs (IEPs) for students.
4. Plan, organise, and assign activities that are specific to each student’s ability.
5. Implement IEPs, assess students.
6. Update IEPs throughout the school year to reflect student’s progress and goals.
Question. What is the role of a Physical Education teacher for children with special needs.
Ans. 1. The rights of persons with disabilities Act 2016, that gives pupil a right to inclusiver activity. So physical education teachers are expected to take action within the individual school context and modify and adopt existing practices in order to facilitate full entitlement to the access of physical activity for pupils with special need.
2. The PETs organise ball games for disabled children to improve overall strength and agility hand eye co-ordination and gross motor skills. Students have shown that throwing, catching, rolling and passing the ball improves the dsiabled child’s muscle response.
3. Scientific research has demonstrated that physical education can ehnhance academic performance and cognitive function. So parents with the help of teachers should always encourage the child with special need to participate in activities.
Question. What is the role of speech language pathologist for special need children?
Ans. Speech therapist/pathologist works with children with a varietes of delay and disorder such as autisum. Down syndrome, hearing imparirment, motor speech disorders, and other developmental delays. They help child with :
1. Articulation skills/speech intelity articulation is the physical ability to move the togue, lips, jaw and palate (known as the articulators) to produce individual speech sounds which we phonemes.
2. Expressive Language Skills: While speech involves the physical motor disability to talk, language is a symbolic system used to convey a message. Proper use of these is developed by speech therapist.
3. Receptive Language/Listening Skills: Receptive language, refers to child’s ability to listen and understand language. Therapist can help teach the child new vocabulary and how to use that knowledge to follow direction, answer question and participate in single conversations with others.
Physical education teacher need to determine the abilities of students with speical needs so that to design special sports activities acording to their need.
4. Speech Fluency/Stuttering: Sluttering is a communication disorder that affects speech fluency. Therapist can teach the child startegies on how to control behaviour like tension in the neck, showdess, face, jaw, chest, eye blink, etc. and thus increasing lies speech fluency and intelligibility.
5. Voice and Resonance: Voice disorders refer to disorders that effect the vocal folds that allow us to have a voice. These can include vocal cord paralysis, nodales or polypes on vocal folds. Therapists can work with children to decrease these behaviours (vocal classess) and repair the strain/damage of the folds.
Physiotherapist: Physiotherapist are trained to evaluate and improve the function of the body, with particular attention to physical mobility, balance, posture, fatigue and pain.
The physical therapy programme involves educating the child about the physical problems caused by their disability, designing and invidualised wise programme to address the problems, and enhancing mobility and energy conservation through the use of a variety of mobility aids and adaptive equipments.
Physiotherapy can be used to help children who have a neurological condition that affects the nervous system, such as multiple sclerasis, stroke and cerebral palsy.
Physiotherapy can be used to treat injuries that affect the bone, joints and muscles such as sports injuries and arthritis.
Paedeatric treatment: Physiotherapy can be used to treat children affected by ‘Muscular Dystrophy’. These and other conditions may require the child to have help to improve balance, strength and co-ordination.
Techniques of physiotherapy
1. Massage and manipulation
2. Exercise and movement