VBQs Reproductive Health Class 12 Biology

VBQs for Class 12

VBQs Reproductive Health Class 12 Biology with solutions has been provided below for standard students. We have provided chapter wise VBQ for Class 12 Biology with solutions. The following Reproductive Health Class 12 Biology value based questions with answers will come in your exams. Students should understand the concepts and learn the solved cased based VBQs provided below. This will help you to get better marks in class 12 examinations.

Reproductive Health VBQs Class 12 Biology

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Govt. of India has raised the marriageable age of female to 18 years and of males to 21 years.
Suggest any two more measures adopted by Government for the purpose.
Answer :
 (i) Incentives should be given to couples with small families.
(ii) Media Publicity, Posters of happy couples with two children.
(iii) Motivate families to use contraceptive measures. (Any two)

Question. State one reason why breast feeding the baby acts as a natural contraceptive for the mother.
Answer :
 Breast feeding the child particularly after parturition fully prevents conception, because during this period there is high level of progesterone which prevents menstruation flow. Just after parturition there is a phase of lactational amoenorrhoea characterized by absence of menstruation and immense lactation. Breast feeding during this period approximately upto six months acts as a natural contraceptive for the mother. 

Question. Mention one positive and one negative application of amniocentesis.
Answer :
 Positive application : It helps to detect any genetically controlled congenital disease or any metabolic disorder in foetus.
Negative application : People use this method for female foeticide. 

Question. Why is tubectomy considered a contraceptive method ? 
Answer :
 In tubectomy, a piece of fallopian tube is cut and the cut ends are tied. Therefore, the sperms are not able to reach the egg. Thus, tubectomy is considered as a contraceptive method. 

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. The alarming population growth is leading to scarcity of basic requirements. Suggest with reason, any two population control measures other than contraception to address the situation.
Answer :
Population control measures other than contraception are : 
(i) Advertisements in the media, to generate awareness. People particularly those in reproductive age group should be given education regarding the advantages of small family and family planning methods. Mass media and educational institutes can play an important role in this campaign, posters exhibiting a happy couple with a slogan “Hum Do Hamare Do’’
(ii) Marriageable age : Statutory raising of marriageable age of the female to 18 years and that of males to 21 years, is more effective means to control population. It help to delay the number of births.
(iii) Incentives : This will certainly help to check population growth. Incentives should be given to couples with small families and to families adopting family planning methods and motivate others to comply.
(Any two of the above measures with explanation) 

Question. Why there is a statutory ban on amniocentesis ?
Why is this technique so named ?
What is amniocentesis ? Why has the government imposed a statutory ban inspite of its importance in medical field. 
Answer :
Amniocentesis is a technique of foetal sex determination based on the pattern of chromosome, in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo. A statutory ban has been imposed on this to stop its misuse and therefore to check the increasing cases of female foeticides resulting in the imbalance of sex ratio in human population. It is so called because it is basically a technique of investigating the genetic and metabolic disorders if any of the foetus by taking out a small quantity of amniotic fluid. 

Question. Why is ZIFT a boon to childless couples ? Explain the procedure. 
Answer :
ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer) method helps the infertile couples to have babies.
The ZIFT is considered as a boon to childless couples because it enables them to attain the parent hood. In this technique, fusion of the ovum from the donor female (wife) and the sperm from the donor male (husband) is done outside the body, in the laboratory. Then the zygote or early embryo (with up to 8 blastomeres) is transferred into the fallopian tube of the woman. Implantation takes place at this early embryo stage in the uterus where further development of the embryo takes place. 

Question. How do ‘implants’ act as an effective method of contraception in human females ? Mention their one advantage over contraceptive pills.
Answer :
The contraceptives in the form of progestogen or progestogen–estrogen combination are used by females as injections or implants under the skin.
These implants are an effective contraceptive method as they check ovulation and sperm transport. They prevent the fertilization of the egg or implantation of the embryo. They makes the egg to move down the fallopian tube and uterus quickly before fertilization.
Advantage : The advantage of implants is their effective periods for longer duration. 

Question. Describe the Lactational Amenorrhea method of birth control. 
Answer :
It has been noticed that during the period of intense lactation after the parturition, the mother does not undergo menstruation and ovulation so the chances of conception are nearly nil. It also has no side effects but is effective only upto a maximum period of six months after parturition.

Question. (i) Explain MTP.
(ii) Give two situations when MTP is advised.
(iii) Write when amniocentesis and MTP can be misused.
Answer : (i) Medical Termination of Pregnancy :
Intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy before full term with help of an expert doctor is called MTP
(ii) MTP is advised in the following situations—
(a) When there is an unwanted pregnancy.
(b) When continuation of pregnancy is harmful or fatal to either mother or foetus or both. 
(c) When there is failure of contraceptive used during coitus or rapes, in either case it is advisable to go for MTP during first trimester i.e., up to 12 weeks of pregnancy.
(d) MTP is also advised if the foetus suffers from incurable genetic and metabolic disorder.
(iii) Amniocentesis is a prenatal technique of studying genetic disorders of foetus by taking out amniotic fluid. But however amniocentesis and MTP has been misused for knowing the sex of the foetus and destroying the same if the foetus is female. 

Question. Name two hormones that are constituents of contraceptive pills. Why do they have high and effective contraceptive value ? Name a commonly prescribed non-steroidal pill.
Answer :
Progestogen-estrogen / Progesterone-estrogen combination, Progestogen–Progesterone.
They inhibit ovulation, inhibit implantation, alter quality of cervical mucus to retard entry of sperm.
Detailed Answer :
Contraceptive pills contain hormones either progestogens or progestogen-estrogen combinations.
They inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent entry of sperms.  
Saheli is a non-steroidal preparation used as oral contraceptive pills. 

Question. (i) Name a terminal method to prevent pregnancy in humans.
(ii) Describe the procedure of the terminal method carried in human male and female.
Answer :
(i) Surgical methods / Sterilisation
(ii) Males : Vasectomy, a small part of vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum.
Females : Tubectomy, a small part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up through a small incision in abdomen or through vagina.

Question. If implementation of better techniques and new strategies are required to provide more efficient care and assistance to people, then why is there a statutory ban on amniocentesis ? Write the use of this technique and give reason to justify.
Answer :
To legally check female foeticide/Misuse of sex determination technique. 
To detect the abnormal chromosomes/genetic disorder. 
Justify : Prevent (female foeticide) change in sex ratio of the population. 
Detailed Answer :
Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic tech nique that is used to determine the sex and met abolic disorders of the developing foetus in the mother’s uterus through the observation of the chromosomal patterns. This method was devel oped so as to determine any kind of genetic dis order present in the foetus.
However, unfortunately, this technique is being misused to detect the sex of the child before birth and the female foetus is then aborted. Thus, to prevent the increasing female foeti cides, it is necessary to ban the usage of amnio centesis technique for determining the sex of a child.