Please refer to the Federalism Notes Class 10 Social Science given below. These revision notes have been designed as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, and KVS books issued for the current academic year. Students will be able to understand the entire chapter in your class 10th Social Science book. We have provided chapter-wise Notes for Class 10 Social Science as per the latest examination pattern.
Revision Notes Chapter 2 Federalism Class 10 Social Science
Students of Class 10 Social Science will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic-wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 10 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.
Types of Government
Features of Federalism:-
- Two or more levels of government
- Each level has its own jurisdiction (power) Jurisdictions Specified in the Constitution
- Changes in the provisions of Constitution require the consent of both the govt’s.
- Courts acts as an umpire if any dispute arise between the levels of government.
- Sources of revenue specified (Financial autonomy) – Every state has its own revenue to look after its welfare.
- Dual objective- promote the unity of the country by accommodating regional diversity
Residuary Subjects: Computers
Subjects that do not fall in any of the three lists, laws of union Govt. will prevail.
How is federalism practiced?
Linguistic states – People who spoke the same language lived in the same state. Some states were created not on the basis of language, but to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.
Formation of linguistic states has made the country united, made administration easier.
Language Policy – Did not give status of National language to any one language. Flexibility is shown. The use of English along with Hindi for official purposes is agreed. States too have their own official languages .
Coalition Government – A Government formed together with two or more political parties. They adopt a common programme.
A major judgement of Supreme Court that made it difficult for the Central Govt. to dismiss State Govt. in an arbitrary manners.
Only 25 of the World’s 192 countries have Federal Political System
Power taken away from centre and State given to local government
Reason for Decentralization in India-
- Large country
- Three – Tier govt.,
- local govt. formed
- Large no. of problems and issues
- Local people-better knowledge of local problems
- Democratic participation- local self- govt.
- 1992- Amendment- third tier made – more powerful
Steps taken to make third-tier more powerful
- Regular elections
- Reservation of seats for SC, ST, OBC Reservation for women
- Creation of state EC to control elections
- State govt. to share power & revenue with local govt.
Formation of Panchayati Raj (Rural local government)
- Group of each village have a panchayat President or Sarpanch
- Directly elected by the people
- Works under the supervision of gram sabha (all voters of the village)
- Meets twice or thrice a year to approve the budget of Gram Panchayat
SHORT ANSWERS QUESTIONS
Question. What is the real reason for the success of federalism in India?
- The constitutional provisions are laid out very clearly.
- The nature of democratic politics has ensured its success
- There is respect for diversity
- The creation of Linguistic States, the flexibility shown by the Indian political leaders in Language policy and the significant changes made in the Centre – State relationships
Question. What are the two routes through which federation have been formed?
Ans. There are two kinds of routes through which federations can be formed.
- First one is “Coming together Federation” in which independent units comes closely to each other to form a union in which both Centre and states vis-a-vis powerful.
- Second one is “Holding together Federation” here a large country decides to divide its powers between the constituent states and the national government.
Question. Write a note on the Local bodies that exist in urban areas?
- Municipalities are setup in towns.
- Big cities have Municipal Corporations.
- Both Municipalities and Municipal Corporations are controlled by elected bodies consisting of the people’s representatives.
- Municipal Chairman is the head of the Municipality and Mayor for Municipal Corporation
Question. What is the importance of Local Self-government?
- The matter of local interest like vvater supply, the cleaning and lighting of streets, maintenance of drainage system, etc. are best settled at the local level.
- It is possible for the people to directly participate in decision making at the local levels like people can take part in panchayat meetings held in their area.
- The money spend and the to manage things more efficiently are seen here.
Question. What was the relationship between the Centre and state when different parties ruled at the Centre and state levels till1990?
- When different parties ruled at the Centre and state levels the parties at the Centre tried to undermine the power of states.
- The central government misused the constitution often to dismiss the state governments that were controlled by other parties. This is against the spirit of federalism.
LONG ANSWERS QUESTIONS
Question. What major steps were taken in 1992 towards decentralization?
- A three tier democracies were introduced in 1992.
- A step was taken towards creating rural local self govt.
- Regular elections to be held for panchayats.
- Seats reserved for SC’s and STs OBCs One third seats reserved for women
- State govt. to share power and revenue with local bodies.
Question. What are the main features of Federalism?
- In federalism there are two or more tires of government but both of the tiers rule over the same citizens.
- Powers of every level are clearly written in the constitution and no one is authorized to cross its limits.
- The fundamental provisions of the Constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government.
- In federalism, courts are known as the guardians of constitution.
- Source of revenue of each level of government are clearly specified. The dual objectives of federal system –
[a] To safeguard and promote unity of the country
[b] accommodate regional diversity.
Question. Explain the flexibility shown in the language policy in Indian federation?
- Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language.
- A candidate in an examination conducted for Central government positions may opt to take the examination in any of the the languages. States too have their own official language.
- English along with Hindi is used for official purposes.
- Promotion of Hindi continues to be the official policy of Government of India. Here, promotion does not mean that Central government can impose Hindi on states where people speak a different language.
Question. What are the three-fold distribution of Legislative powers between the Union and the State governments? What are “Residuary Subjects”?
Ans. Constitution has clearly demarcated the powers between different levels. Every level is given certain subjects to make laws related to its jurisdiction.
- Union List: Union List is a list of certain subjects on which Central government can make laws.
- State List: State list is a list of certain subjects on which state government can make laws.
- Concurrent List: Concurrent list is a list of subjects which are of common interest for both central and state government.
Residuary Subjects: There are certain subjects which are not included in any of the three lists only central government can make laws on these subjects.