Democracy and Diversity Notes Class 10 Social Science

Notes Class 10

Please refer to the Democracy and Diversity Notes Class 10 Social Science given below. These revision notes have been designed as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, and KVS books issued for the current academic year. Students will be able to understand the entire chapter in your class 10th Social Science book. We have provided chapter-wise Notes for Class 10 Social Science as per the latest examination pattern.

Revision Notes Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Social Science

Students of Class 10 Social Science will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic-wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 10 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.

Democracy and Diversity Notes Class 11 Sociology

Social Division

Division of the society on the basis of language, region, caste, colour, race or sex. It signifies linguistic and regional diversity.

Civil Rights Movement in the USA (1954-1968)

A series of events and reform movements with the aim of abolishing legal, racial discrimination against African-Americans. Martin Luther King Jr. started the movement in 1954.This movement practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory lavvs and practices.


Afro-American, Black American or Black are the terms used to refer mainly to the descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between early 17th and 19th century.

The Black power

It was a movement started by black people in 1966(1966-1975) against racism and the practice of apartheid. It was a militant movement advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US.


Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country for the purpose of work or other economic opportunities.


It refers to communities who are less than half of the total population of the country. The idea of minority at national level is totally different from what it is at state level.

Homogenous Society.

Homogenous Society signifies absence of significant ethnic differences. It is a society that has similar kinds of people or inhabitants.

Multi- Cultural Community

Social community formed on the basis of different cultures is known as the Multi-cultural community. This happens mostly due to the practice of migration when people bring with them their own culture.

Athletes who made an important landmark in the history of Civil Rights Movement in the United States

1. Tommie Smith and John Carlos (held guilty) – They were US athletes. Taken part in 200 race in 1968 Olympic held at Mexico city-Won gold and bronze medals

During the National Anthem they stood with clenched fists upraised and heads bowed,- wore black socks and no shoes, -Symbolize Black power

2. Peter Norman Australian – won silver medal and wore a human right’s badge to support Tommie and John (The athletes in the example above were responding to social divisions and inequalities)

Democracy and Diversity Notes Class 11 Sociology
  • Three determinants (factors) for the outcome of politics of social divisions¬≠ How people perceive their identities – eg. to be an Indian though belonging to different state
  • How political leaders raise the demands of any community- eg- The demand for only Sinhala’ in Srilanka brought distrust among Tamils.
  • How the govt. react to different groups- eg -Willing to share power and be accommodative like in Belgium

Advantage of social division in democracy-

  • Can express their grievances and the govt. attend to it Intensity of social division is reduced by canceling one another out, through their expressions (being accommodative)
  • Raise their issues in a peaceful manner for seeking votes


Question. How do class and religion overlap with each other in Northern Ireland?
Ans. In Northern Ireland the population is divided into two major sects of Christianity-
53% are Protestants and 44% are Roman Catholics. The Catholics are more likely to be poor and suffered a history of discrimination. On the other hand, the Protestants are rich. This resulted in conflicts between the two.

Question. Mention three similarities between Tommie Smith and John Carlos.

  • Both were African- Americans.
  • Both won medals at the Mexico Olympic Games in 1968.
  • Stood against racial discrimination which was practiced against the Africans in America.

Question. What do you know about origins of social differences?

  • Social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Some of the differences are based on our choices.
  • By Birth – Normally we do not choose to belong to our community, we belong to it simply because we are born into it.
  • By choices – Some people are atheists-they do not believe in God or any religion, some choose to follow religion other than in which they were born.

Question. Who was Peter Norman? Why did he support Carlos and Smith? What punishment did he get for this?

  • Peter Norman was an Australian Athlete.
  • Norman wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the dissent of two American athletes.
  • Norman was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympic.

Question. Explain two advantages and two disadvantages of social divisions in democracy. 
Ans. Advantage :-

  • Political expressions of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.
  • Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their canceling one another out and thus reducing their intensity.

Disadvantages :-

  • In a democracy the different social groups organize themselves to bring equality, social justice and other vested interests. Sometimes their protest results into violence or conflicts.
  • For the society which has high social divisions, becomes very difficult to ensure integrity and unity.


Question. Explain the three determinants in deciding the outcome of politics with examples.

  • How people perceive their identities.
  • How Political leaders raise the demands of any community.
  • How the government reacts to demands of different groups.

Question. “Overlapping social differences create deep social divisions and Cross-cutting differences are easier to accommodate” Justify the given statement.

  • Social divisions take place when some social difference overlaps with other differences.
  • The difference between Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.
  • When one kind of social difference become more important than the other, this produces social divisions. In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other.
  • If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against the other. In Netherlands class and religion tend to cut across each other.
Democracy and Diversity Notes Class 10 Social Science