Students should practice questions given in Improvement in Food Resources Chapter 15 Class 9 Science Worksheets. These worksheets for Class 9 Science have a good collection of important questions and answers which are expected to come in your class tests and examinations. You should learn these solved worksheet questions for Science Class 9 as it will help you to understand all topics and give you more marks.
Class 9 Science Worksheets Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
Please refer to below questions and answers for Improvement in Food Resources Chapter 15 Class 9 Science Worksheets. Prepared by expert teachers for Standard 9 Science
Question. State the meaning of capture fishing and culture fishing.
Capture fishing : It is done from natural resources.
Culture fishing : It is done by fish farming.
Question. Name two kharif crops.
Paddy and soyabean.
Question. Define hybridisation.
Hybridisation refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants, to obtain better variety of crops.
Question. What are genetically modified crops?
A gene with required characters can introduce into a crop for its improvement is called genetically modified crop.
Question. Name two exotic breeds of cattle.
Jersey and Brown Swiss
Question. “Shorter the duration of the crop from sowing to harvesting, the more economical is the variety.” Give reason for this.
Farmers can grow more crops in a year due to short duration of crop growth, and reduce the cost of crop production.
Question. Name different types of crop production practices involved in India.
They are (a) no cost production, (b) low cost production and (c) high cost production.
Question. What is the tremendous increase in the production of eggs in India known as?
Golden revolution and Silver revolution.
Question. List two desirable traits for fodder crops.
Tallness and profused branching are the desired characteristics for producing a higher yield of fodder crops.
Question. What is mariculture?
The culture of marine fish in sea water is called mariculture.
Question. What are macro-nutrients?
The nutrients required by plants in larger quantity is called macro-nutrients. They are nitrogen, phosphorus,potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur.
Question. Name the nutrients that plant obtains from air and water.
Air – Carbon and oxygen
Water – Hydrogen and oxygen
Question. Give technical term for milk producing females and farm labour animals.
Milk-producing females are called milch animals (dairy animals), while the ones used for farm labour are called draught animals.
Question. Why do we eat pea and groundnut?
Pea (matar) provides us protein whereas groundnut provide us necessary fats.
Question. State the difference between compost and vermicompost.
The compost is obtained by decomposition of organic waste like animal excreta, plant waste, etc. naturally due to decomposition by bacteria. Vermi-compost : Red-worms are added to organic matter in the process of decomposition to obtain compost to fasten. This will fasten the process.
Question. What causes disease in plants?
It is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Question. Name two Indian cattle.
Bos indicus – cows
Bos bubalis – buffaloes
Question. How does Bos indicus differ from Bos bubalis?
Bos indicus is a cow while Bos bubalis is a buffalo.
Question. How does deficiency of nutrients affect the crop?
Physiological processes can be affected by deficiency of any nutrient in plants including reproduction, growth and susceptibility to diseases.
Question. Name two types of food required for milch animals.
Maintenance requirement – food required to keep animal healthyMilk producing requirement – food required for increased lactation animal food includes roughage and concentrate also.
Question. What is meant by bee-keeping?
Rearing of bees for the production of honey on a large scale is called bee-rearing.
Question. From where do plants get nutrients?
Air, water and soil provides nutrients to plants.
Question. Differentiate between milch and draught animals.
Milk producing animals are called mulch animals.Animals used for farm labour are called draught animals.
Question. What are weeds? Give example.
Unwanted plants growing with main crops are called weeds. Example : Xanthium, Parthenium, Cyperinus Rotundus.
Question. In what way broilers, feed is different from layers?
Broilers, feed is protein rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamins A and K is kept high in the poultry feeds.
Question. Which one broilers or layers mature earlier?
Broilers have fast growth rate.
Question. Name two factors responsible for wastage of grains during storage.
Factors responsible for such losses are :
Biotic : insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria,
Abiotic : inappropriate moisture and temperatures in the place of storage.
Question. What is the advantage of crop rotation?
Answer. Rotation of crops helps in saving on nitrogenous fertilizers, because leguminous plants grown during the rotation of crops can fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil with the help of nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Question. What are the three advantages of shorter duration of the crop in between sowing and harvesting?
Answer. Short durations allow farmers to grow multiple rounds of crops in a year. Short duration also reduces the cost of crop production. Uniform maturity makes the harvesting process easy and reduces losses during harvesting.
Question. What are the main characters required in a crop during its improvement practices?
The useful characters that are required in a crop during its improvement :
(i) Disease resistance
(ii) Response to fertilizer
(iii) Product quality
(iv) High yield
Question. State the difference between macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients.
Question. What is the advantage of composite fish culture?
The composition of six species of fish in composite fish is highly advantageous because:
(i) These fishes do not compete for food among themselves
(ii) They have different food habit
(iii) Food in all parts of pond is utilized due to different food habits
Question. What is organic farming?
Answer. Farming method in which no chemical fertilizers, pesticides or herbicides are used. Instead of using chemical, farmer uses all organic matter for growth of crops. Example : Manure, neem leaves as pesticides and for grain storage.
Question. State the preventive and control measures used before grains are stored.
(i) Cleaning of the grains.
(ii) Keep seeds in sunlight to provide moisture.
(iii) Using chemicals that kills pest.
Question. Why Apis mellifera is adopted for domestication to produce honey?
Answer. The Italian species of honey bee, i.e. Apis mellifera is adopted for its many good qualities. They :
(i) sting less
(ii) have good honey collection capacity
(iii) produce with less swarming
(iv) have ability to protect itself from enemy
(v) stay in beehives for a long time
Question. Give difference between apiculture and aquaculture.
Answer. Domestication of honeybees or production of honey and wax on commercial bases is called apiculture.Farming and management of fish and other aquatic animals and plants in water is called aquaculture.
Question. Name the sources and the nutrients supplied by them to the plants.
Question. What are fertilizers? Excess use of fertilizers is not advisable, explain.
Answer. Fertilizers are commercially produced plant nutrients.They supply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.They are used to ensure good vegetative growth,giving rise to healthy plants.
Excessive use of fertilizers are not advisable as:
(a) It leads to soil and water pollution.
(b) It can destroy the fertility of soil.
Question. How do insect pests attack the plant and affect it?
Answer. Insect pests attack the plants and reduces yield in three ways :
(i) They cut the root, stem and leaf.
(ii) They suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant.
(iii) They bore into stem and fruits.
Question. What are the new varieties obtained by cross breeding of Indian and exotic breeds of poultry?
Answer.The new variety/traits obtained by cross breeding of Indian and exotic breeds of poultry are :
(i) Number and quality of chicks
(ii) Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production
(iii) Summer adaptation capacity/tolerance to high temperature
(iv) Low maintenance requirements
(v) Reduction in the size of the egg-laying bird with ability to utilise more fibrous and cheaper diet, formulated using agricultural by products.
Question. State the difference between egg-layers and broilers.
Question. Organism which enriches the soil with nutrients is called biofertilizers.
(a) Write its advantage. (b) Give example.
(a) Biofertilizers are non-pollutant sources of plant nutrients. They are renewable.
(b) Example of biofertilizers are- Rhizobium, Blue green algae.
Question. A group of Science Club students made a compost pit in the school, they collected all bio-degradable waste from the school canteen and used it to prepare the compost.
(a) Name, two waste that can be used for the compost and two wastes obtained from canteen which cannot be used for the compost making.
(b) What is the other important component required for making the compost?
(a) Two waste used for compost are vegetable peels and fruit peels. Two waste materials that cannot be used as compost are polythene bags and plastic items.
(b) Bacteria and fungi present in soil are the other important component for making compost.
Question. Name two breeds of cows selected for long lactation period.
Answer. After giving the birth of a calf, a cow secretes milk.The duration of milk secretion of a cow that is the period of time till which the cow secretes milk is known as lactation period. Brown Swiss and jersey are selected for their long lactation period.
Question. Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production.
Sending crop to sugar factory → Irrigation → Harvesting → Sowing → Preparation of soil → Ploughing the field → Manuring
Preparation of soil → Ploughing the field → Manuring → Sowing → Irrigation → Harvesting → Sending crop to sugar factory.
Question. Explain different types of fisheries.
The different types of fisheries are marine fisheries;
inland fisheries, capture fishing, mariculture and aquaculture.
(i) Marine fisheries : Marine fishes are caught using fishing nets.
(ii) Mariculture : Marine .fishes are cultured in seawater.
(iii) Inland fisheries : The fisheries done in freshwater resources like canals, ponds, reservoirs and rivers.
(iv) Capture fishing : It is done in sea-water, estuaries and lagoons.
(v) Aquaculture : Culture of fish done in different water bodies is called aquaculture.
Question. What are the practices used for dairy industry?
Answer. The practices used for dairy industry to get the optimum yield are :
(i) Shelter : The shelter should be clean, spacious and airy.
(ii) Feeding : Proper food at proper time is essential for dairy animals.
(iii) Rearing of animals : Providing them proper health care and protection from pathogens, diseases and proper vaccination.
(iv) Breeding : The crossing of different variety of milch animals to obtain a breed that can produce more yield of milk.
Question. What are the various methods of irrigation in India?
Answer. Most of agriculture in India is rain-fed, several different kinds of irrigation system are adopted to supply water to agricultural lands. The resources are-wells, canals, rivers and tanks.
(i) Wells : Dug wells and tube wells. In dug wells water is collected from water— bearing strata.
(ii) Tubewells : Water from deeper strata.
(iii) Canals : Most extensive irrigation system. Canals receive water from reservoirs or rivers. The main canal is divided into branch canals having further distributaries to irrigate fields.
(iv) River lift system : Water is directly drawn from the river for supplementing irrigation in areas close to rivers.
(v) Tanks : These are small storage reservoirs, which intercept and store the run-off of smaller catchment areas.
Question. What are the different patterns of cropping?
What are the different cropping systems?
Answer. Different systems of growing crop :
(a) Mixed cropping : Two or more crops grow simultaneously on the same piece of land, is called mixed cropping.
Example : Wheat + grain, wheat + mustard.
(ii) Inter-cropping : It is a method of growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern. A few row of one crop alternate with a few rows of second crop.
Example : Soyabean + Maize or Bajra + Lobia.
(iii) Crop rotation : The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a succession is known as crop rotation.
Question. Give brief sketch on advantages and disadvantages on manure and fertilizers.
Answer. Advantages of manure :
(i) It increases the number of friendly microbes.
(ii) It improves the texture of soil by adding organic matter (humus).
(iii) It increases soil fertility, water holding capacity and aeration.
(iv) It reduces soil erosion.
(v) It is cheap.
Disadvantages of manure :
(i) They have fewer amounts of nutrients as compared to fertilizers.
(ii) Manures are bulky and not easy to store and transport.
Fertilizers : These are commercially manufactured inorganic salts containing one or more essential plant nutrients like NPK, which are used to increase soil fertility.
Advantages of fertilizers :
(i) They are nutrient specific and required in small amounts.
(ii) They are water soluble and absorbed by the plant easily.
(iii) They are easy to store and transport.
Disadvantages of fertilizers :
(i) Fertilizers can change the soil structure by killing the soil microbes.
(ii) Fertilizers can change the chemical composition of soil.
(iii) Accumulation of fertilizers in water bodies causes eutrophication
Question. What are the factors for which variety improvement of crop is done?
(a) Higher yield : It increases production of crop.
(b) Biotic and abiotic resistance : Crop should be resistant to biotic factors like diseases, insects, pests and abiotic factors like drought, salinity, heat, etc.
(c) Change in maturity duration : Short-duration maturity allows farmer to grow more crops in a year with short duration maturity and reduces the crop production cost.
(d) Wider adaptability : Crop should be able to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
(e) Desirable agronomic characteristics : Crop should have tallness and dwarfness as per need. Dwarfness is required for cereals, so that few nutrients are consumed.
Question. What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?
Answer. The things we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables are as follows:
Cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.): are the sources of carbohydrates which provide energy.
Pulses(pea, gram and soybean, etc.): are source of proteins.
Vegetables and fruits: provide us vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Question. How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?
Answer. Factors which affect crop production are: Biotic factors which cause loss of grains are rodents, pests, insects, etc. and abiotic factors, such as temperature, humidity, moisture, etc. Affects of both biotic and abiotic factors on crop production are in the following ways:
Infestation of insects
Poor germination ability
Question. What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvement?
Answer. Desirable agronomic characteristics are: Desirable characters for fodder crops are tallness and profuse branching And Dwarfness is desired in cereals, so that fewer nutrients are consumed by these crops.
Question. What are the macronutrients and why are they called macronutrients?
Answer. Macronutrients are essential elements which are required by plants in major quantities.
Some of the main macronutrients are:
(i) N, P, S which are found in proteins.
(ii) Ca is found in cell wall.
(iii) Mg is a part of chlorophyll.
Question. How do plants get nutrients?
Answer. Soil is the main source of nutrients for plants. Plants absorb the dissolved nutrients by the roots from the soil. This water absorbed by the roots is transported by the xylem tissue throughout the plant body.
Question. Compare the use of manure and fertilisers in maintaining soil fertility.
Answer. Use of manure in maintaining soil quality:
(i) Manures are the very rich source of organic matter (humus) for the soil. Humus helps to restore water retention capacity of sandy soil and drainage in clayey soil.
(ii) Manures are the sources of soil organisms like soil friendly bacteria. Use of fertilisers on soil quality
(i) Excess use of fertilisers cause to dryness of soil and hence the rate of soil erosion increases.
(ii) Continuous use of fertilisers decreases the organic matter which reduce the porosity of the soil and the plant roots do not get sufficient oxygen.
Question. Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?
(i) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilisers.
(ii) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilisers and use crop protection measures.
(iii) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.
Answer. The (iii) third option is the best option which provides the best conditions to get most benefits. For this, farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizers and use crop protection measures. This is because the use of only quality seeds is not sufficient until they are properly irrigated, enriched with fertilizers and protected from biotic factors.
Question. Why should preventing measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?
Answer. In plants, diseases are caused by Pathogens. To remove pathogens, some preventive measure and biological control methods are used which are :
Minimise pollution without affecting the soil quality
Question. What factors may be responsible for the losses of grains during storage?
Answer. Following are the factors responsible for loss of grains during storage:
(i) Abiotic factors like humidity and temperature.
(ii) Biotic factors like insects, rodents, birds, mites and bacteria.
Question. Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why? How is cross breeding useful in animals?
Answer. To improve the cattle breed breeds, we generally use the cross breeding method. It is a process in which a cross is made between indigenous varieties of cattle by exotic breeds to get a cross breed which is high-yielding. During cross breeding, the desired characters taken into considerations are the off springs should be high Yielding, should have early maturity and should be resistant to diseases and climatic conditions.
Question. Discuss the implications of the following statement It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food.
Answer. The poultry birds are efficient converters of agricultural by products, particularly cheaper fibrous wastes into high quality meat and in providing egg, feathers and nutrient rich manure. So, the given statement is correctly said for the poultry birds.
Question. What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
Answer. Well designed and hygenic shelter.
Proper food is required to get good yield of egg and meat.
Complete protection from diseases causing agents like virus, bacteria or fungi.
Question. What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?
Answer. The poultry bird giving meat are called broilers and the egg laying birds are called layers. The ration required for broilers should be rich in protein with sufficient fat. The food should also have high vitamin-A and K. Layers require enough space and lighting.