Nationalism in India Notes Class 10 Social Science

Notes Class 10

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Revision Notes Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 Social Science

Students of Class 10 Social Science will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic-wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 10 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.

Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Satyagraha –

The power of Truth & the need to search for truth –Mental strength is more powerful than physical force to win the heart of the oppressor. Novel idea of Satyagraha was first time implemented in South Africa.

In India the first was at Champaran in 1916 – to inspire plantation workers to struggle against oppressive plantation system.

In 1917 Satyagraha at Kheda – to support peasants.

In 1918 Satyagraha at Ahmedabad-Among the cotton mill workers.

“Hind Swaraj – the famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi, which emphasised non-co- operation to British rule in India

The First World War, Khilafat and Non Cooperation

On 13th April 1919 Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre – Amritsar in Punjab The

First World War – its effects.

Huge increases in defenses expenditure. Custom duties were raised; Income tax was introduced. There was forced recruitments in rural areas, spread of epidemics

The Rowlatt Act of 1919: It gave the British government enormous power to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

Non-cooperation programme was adopted at Nagpur in Dec.1920.

The peasant movement in Awadh demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar- Baba Ramachandra.

Inland Emigration Act of 1859: Under this act plantation worker were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.

Alluri Sitaram Raju led the tribal revolt of Guden Hills of Andhra Pradesh

Khilafat agitation – led by Muhammad Ali & Shaukat Ali.

Chauri Chaura incident –Violence –withdrawal of Non-Cooperation movement-1922 Swaraj Party was founded by C.R. Das and Moti Lal Nehru for return to council Politics. Simon Commission 1928 and boycott.

Lahore Congress session and demand for Purna Swaraj in 1929. Dandi march and the beginning of civil Disobedience movement

Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food- salt considered a more effective weapon for protest against Britishers.

Government ‘s repressive policy – Gandhi Irwin Pact and failure of round table conference- Re-launching of movement.

Who participated in the movement?

The rich peasant communities, the poor peasantry, business class, the industrial workers in Nagpur and a large scale participation of women took active part in the movement.

Limits of the movement – less participation by untouchables – Ambedkar for separate electorate and Poona pact of 1932, luke warm response by some Muslim PoliticalOrganization

Provisions of Poona pact of 1932 – Signed between Dr.Ambedkar& Gandhiji – It gave depressed classes reserved seats in central provincial councils but they were to be voted by the general electorate.

The sense of collective belonging- This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles role of folklore and songs- the image of Bharath Mata- Nationalism through icons or symbols of representation of History. The first image was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay & painted by Abanindra Nath Tagore.

Nationalism in India Notes Class 10 Social Science

Two Marks Questions

Question. What decision was made at the Nagpur Session of Congress in 1920?
Answer : At the Nagpur Session of Congress in December 1920, a compromise was reached and the Non-Cooperation Movement was adopted.

Question. How middle classes participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Answer : Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.

Question. What was ‘Champaran Movement’ ?
Answer : The Champaran Movement was the first Satyagraha Movement that took place in 1916 at Champaran district in Bihar, India.

Question.Why Kheda farmers protested against Britishers ?
Answer : Being affected by crop shortage and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue.

Question. How Simon Commission was greeted in India?
Answer : When Simon Commission entered India in 1928, it was welcomed with the roaring slogan in a black flag, ‘Go back, Simon’.

Question. Why Martial Law was imposed in Amritsar?
Answer : Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was not allowed to enter Delhi. On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession that culminated widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations, so Martial Law was imposed.

Question. Why General Dyer fired upon innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?
Answer : General Dyer aimed to produce a moral effect and to strike terror in the minds of Satyagrahis.

Question. When was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed?
Answer : The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin on March 5, 1931.

Question. Unfold the stages of Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer : (i) Started with the surrender of titles that government awarded
(ii) Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.

Question. Why many Congress leaders were reluctant to boycott council elections ?
Answer : The Congress leaders were willing to boycott council elections scheduled for November 1920, as they feared if they joined Non-Cooperation Movement; it might lead to popular violence.

Question. Who was Sir John Simon ?
Answer : Six John Simon was the chairman of the simoncommission in India.

Question. Why was Simon Commission rejected in India ?
Answer : The Simon Commission was rejected in India because it did not have a single Indian member.

Question. What was Mahatma Gandhi’s reaction on Rowlatt Act?
Answer : Mahatma Gandhi aimed to start a non-violent Civil Disobedience Movement against such unjust laws that could initiate with a strike on 6th April, 1919.

Question. What is meant by Satyagraha ?
Answer : Satyagraha is the non-violent way of mass agitation against the oppressor. The not ion of Satyagraha underscored the power of truth.

Question. How did Gandhi ji apply the method of Satyagraha in India
Answer : Initially, Gandhi ji applied the method of Satyagraha in the Champaran district of Bihar. He aimed to help the exploited peasants from the clutch of torturous plantation owners.

Question. What resolut ion was passed at Calcutta session of Congress in September 1920?
Answer : At the Calcutta Session of Congress, Gandhiji convinced other leaders to initiate a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.

Question. What was the impact of Non-Cooperation Movement on imports?
Answer : The import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922, and its value declined from 102 crore to 57 crore.

Question. Why boycott of British institutions posed a problem?
Answer : For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. But these were slow to come up and teachers and students started trickling back to government schools.

Question. Who was Baba Ramchandra ?
Answer : Baba Ramchandra, a Sanyasi, was the leader of the peasant’s revolt in Awadh.

Question. Why people gathered in Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April, 1919 ?
Answer : In order to attend Vaisakhi festival, a crowd of villagers assembled at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on 13th April, 1919.

Question. Why Mahatma Gandhi ji wanted to join Khilafat issue ?
Answer : In order to spawn communal harmony, Mahatma Gandhi ji aimed to join Khilafat issue.

Question. Why Awadh Movement of Peasants began ?
Answer : The Awadh movement was launched against talukdars and landlords who demanded excessive high rents from peasants.

Question. What were the demands of peasants in Awadh ?
Answer : The peasants of Awadh demanded lessening of revenues, elimination of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

Question. How can battles be fought with Satyagraha ?
Answer : The notion of Satyagraha underscored that if the cause was true, then the physical might was not indispensable to fight the oppressor.

Question. Which was the third early Satyagrahi Movement?
Answer : In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi ji travelled to Ahmedabad to organise Satyagraha Movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Question. Who headed the ‘Awadh Kisan Sabha’ ?
Answer : Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba Ramchandra headed the’Awadh Kisan Sabha’.

Question. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922?
Answer : Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 because in same year, at Chauri-Chaura(Gorakhpur), a peaceful mob turned violent and clashed with police resulting in death of several policemen.

Question. Who formed Swaraj Party ?
Answer : C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the congress.

Question. How Awadh movement was materialised ?
Answer : As the movement permeated in 1921, the houses of landlords and merchants were razed to the ground, bazaars were sacked and grain hoards were captured.

Question. Why were Dalits ignored by the Congress for the long time?
Answer : The Congress shunned the interests of Dalits for the fear of offending the Sanatanis, the Conservative High Caste Hindus.

Question. Why did Indians oppose the ‘Simon Commission`?*
Answer : Indians opposed the ‘Simon Commission’ because this commission was set up to give an account of how the Indian Constitution was working without having any Indian representation.

Question. Why did the militant guerrilla movement in Andhra Pradesh start?
Answer : In Gudem Hills, the colonial government had blocked large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests. This enraged the hill people and they revolted against the British.

Question. What do you know about Alluri Sitaram Raju?
Answer : Alluri Sitaram Raju was the pioneer of Andhra Pradesh. He could make astrological predictions and heal people.

Question.What was ‘Kheda Movement’ ?
Answer : The Kheda Movement was the second Satyagraha Movement that took place in 1917 at Kheda district in Gujarat, India.

Question.What did British do to repress the RowlattSatyagrahi ?
Answer : Satyagrahi were compelled to rub their noses on the ground, squat on the streets and do salaam to all Britishers.

Question. Why was the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 troublesome for plantation workers?
Answer : The Inland Emigration Act of 1859 was troublesome for plantation workers because plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without official permission. In fact people rarely got such permissions. People were not allowed to go to their homes.

Question. Name two prominent industrialists of the early-twentieth century.
Answer : Purshottamdas Thakur and G.D. Birla were the twoprominent industrialists of the earlytwentiethcentury.

Question. Why people in rural areas were angry on Britishers?
Answer : There was a prevalence of conscription system or forced recruitment of soldiers in rural areas, culminating in acute dearth of food, accompanied by influenza epidemic.

Question. Correct the following statement and rewrite it:
Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Morley-Minto Reforms (1919).
Answer : Gandhij i in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).

Question. Why people started buying mill clothes instead of Khadi ?
Answer : Khadi clothes were relatively more expensive than mass-produced mill clothes. Therefore, people preferred mill clothes over Khadi.

Question. What was Inland Emigration Act ?
Answer : Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the plantation workers were not allowed to leave the tea plantation without permission.

Three Marks Questions

Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the non-cooperation movement?
Why was non-cooperation movement called off by Gandhi ji ?
Answer : Non-cooperation movement was called off by Gandhi ji because of the following reason-
• He felt that the moment was turning violent in many places.
• Gandhi ji was firm believer of peaceful opposing the British.
• Gandhiji believed that the Satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle.
• Mahatma Gandhi called off the non-cooperation movement because of the Chauri-Chaura incident in February 1922.

Question. With what aim was the Swaraj Party setup? Who formed Swaraj Party?
Answer : • Swaraj Party was setup by Motilal Nehru and CR Das in 1923.
• They wanted to participate in election to the provincial Council.
• They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the Council.

Question. Write a note on Jallianwala Bagh incident. ( 13 April 1919)
What were the circumstances that led to the the Jallianwala Bagh mascare?
Why was the theRowlatt Satyagraha launched? Why was it called off?
Answer : • I. Hartal was started in Amritsar on 6th April.
• Most of the local leaders of Amritsar were arrested on 10th April and Martial Law was imposed.
• General Dyer took command of law and order.
• Jallianwala Bagh is a small bag outside of Amritsar.
• On 13th April, villagers were gathered to celebrate Baisakhi and some were present to protest against RowlattAct.
• villagers were au aware of the Martial that had been imposed in Amritsar.
• General Dyer entered the area, block the exit points and ordered fire on the crowd.
• Hundreds of people were killed and thousands were injured.
• Later dyer’s remark was that it was all done to produce terror among Indians.
• Seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.

Question. what were the main features of the Gandhi-Irwin pact?
Answer : I. Gandhi-Irwin pact which was signed in March 1931.
II. By this fact, the Congress agreed to join the second round table conference in London.
III. According to this agreement the government agreed to release all political Prisoners.
IV. Gandhi ji should attend the second round table conference.
V. And he should call of the civil disobedience movement.

Question. Why did Gandhi ji re-launch civil disobedience movement?
Answer : I. The failure of second round table conference disappointed Gandhi ji.
II. When he came back to India, he saw that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
III. Gaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail.
IV. Congress had been declared illegal.
V. A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.
With great apprehension, Mahatma Gandhi re-launched the civil disobedience movement.

Question. What was Khilafat issue? How did it become part of the Nationalist movement?
Answer : • Turkey was under Ottoman Empire.
• The ruler of Turkey was called Khalifa.
• He was the spiritual leader of Muslims all around the world.
• Britain defeated Turkey in world war.
• Britain deththroned the existing Khalifa and appointed A new Khalifa in his place.
• It caused the wide spread anger among the Muslims all over the world.
• In India also Muslims started protesting against the British by forming Khilafat committee under the leadership of Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
• Gandhiji saw this as golden opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified struggle against British.
• Gandhiji convinced all Congress leader to support Khilafat movement in support of Swaraj.

Question. Why the non-cooperation movement failed early in towns?
Why was the non-cooperation movement slowed down in cities?
Answer : The non-cooperation movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons.
• Khadi was too much expensive than the British produced mill cloth.
• Poor people could not afford to wear Khadi.
• For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be opened but its process was very slow.
• Teachers and children started going back to their schools.
• Lawyers started going back to their courts.

Question. How did the First world war help in the growth of national movement in India?
State the implications of the first world war on India’s freedom struggle?
How the post first world war scenario in India was responsible in instigating the Anti-British feelings among Indians?
Answer : Implications of World War first
1. World war created a new economic and political situation all around the world.
2. Britain was under a huge war expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
3. Custom duty were raised and Income Tax was introduced.
4. The price rise was double during the war years. It lead to extreme hardship for the common people.
5. Forced recruitment of soldiers in the rural areas caused widespread anger.
6. At the same time failure of crops in many parts of India.
7. Same time, influenza epidemic broke out.
All the factors together were responsible to the growth of anti-British feeling among the Indians.

Question. What is meant by the idea of ‘Satyagraha’?
‘A Satyagrahi wins the battle through non-violence.’ Explain with examples.
Answer : The idea of Satyagraha
1.The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
2. If the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
3. A satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence.
4. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
5. People, including the oppressors, had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through use of violence.
6. By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph.

Question. Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju?
Write a short note on Raju’s contribution in the NCM among the tribals.
Answer : • Alluri sitarama Raju was an interesting character.
• He led the NCM among the tribals in gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh.
• He claimed that he had a variety of special power.
• He could make correct astrological predictions.
• He could Heal treat the people he could even survive Bullet shots.
• Raju was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi and his non-cooperation movement.
• He told the hill people to wear Khadi and give up drinking.
• But, Raju believe that Swaraj could be achieved only through the use of violence.
• Raju was captured and executed in 1924.

Question. Why did Gandhi ji start the civil disobedience movement?
Why did Gandhi ji considered salt as a powerful symbol of national movement against the British?
What was the Salt Satyagraha ( The Dandi March)
Answer : I.Congress declared full Independence at the Lahore session in 1929.
II. Congress decided to launch civil disobedience movement to get complete Independence.
III. Gandhiji send the letter to Lord Irwin stating 11 demands on 31 January 1930.
IV. The most important demand was to abolish the salt tax.
V. Salt was consumed by the rich and the poor and it was one of the most essential items of food.
VI.Mahatma Gandhi found salt as a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
VII. The government imposed tax on salt and monopoly over its production.
VIII. Mahatma Gandhi declared it as the most oppressive face of British rule.
IX. Gandhiji give an ultimatum to the British that if the demands were not fulfilled by 11 March Congress would launch a civil disobedience campaign.
X. Since the demands were not accepted, Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Dandi March accompanied by 38 of his trusted volunteers.
XI. The march was over 240 miles from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi.
XII. The volunteers walked for 24 days about 10 miles a day.
XIII.Gandhiji reached Dandi and violated the law producing salt by boiling sea water on 6 April.
XIV. This marked the beginning of the civil disobedience movement.

Question. How did the plantation workers conceived the idea of non-cooperation movement? OR What did Swaraj mean for the workers of plantation?
Answer : • Under the inland emigration act of 1859, plantation workers were not allowed to leave the tea gardens without permission & they were rarely given such permission .
• When the heard of non-cooperation, they believed that Gandhi raj is coming and everyone would given land in their own villages.
• Thousands of workers disobeyed the owners, left the plantations and went home.
• They never reached their homes. They were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.

Question. What was Simon Commission? Why Indians opposed it?
Why did Simon Commission visit India? Why was it boycotted?
Answer : • Britain constituted a statutory commission under John Simon.
• It was set up in response to the Nationalist movement.
• The main objective of this Commission was to review the constitutional system of India and suggest changes.
• The problem was that there was no single Indian member in the commission. They were all British.
• So Indians started to oppose this Simon Commission.

Question. Mention some of the early political agitations of Mahatma Gandhi in India.
Answer : Early political movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India –
1. After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organized Satyagraha movements in various places.
2. In 1916, he traveled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
3. In 1917, He organized a Satyagraha to support the peasants of Kheda district of Gujarat. they were affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic so the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue and they were demanding for relaxation in revenue collection.
4. In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organize a Satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Question. Write a note on the Rowlatt Act.
Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
Answer : The Rowlatt Act
1. British government hurriedly passed an act in respect to Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagraha.
2. This act gave the government enormous power to repress political activities.
3. It also allowed detention of political Prisoners without trial for 2 years.
Protest of Rowlatt Act/RowlattSatyagraha :-
1.Gandhi ji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed act in 1919.
2. He wanted nonviolent civil disobedience against search unjust laws.
3 Which would start with hartal on 6 April.
Steps taken in Rowlatt Satyagraha
1. Rallies were organized in various cities.
2. Workers went on strike in railway workshop.
3. Shops closed down.
4. Afraid of this moment, the British administration decided to start repression on Nationalists.
5. Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi and Martial Law was imposed.

Question. What were the two important decisions taken at Lahore session of the Indian National Congress in 1929?
Discuss the significance of the congress session in 1929 in the freedom struggle of India.
Answer : I. The congress session of Lahore was held under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1929.
II. In the session, the Indian National Congress demanded for Purna Swaraj or full Independence for India.
III. It was declared that 26 January 1930 would be celebrated as the Independence Day.
IV. People would take a pledge to struggle for complete Independence.

Question. Why did the business class support the civil disobedience movement? Why did the business class not support the civil disobedience movement when it was re-launched?
Answer : I. Indian merchants and industrialists wanted protection against Import of foreign goods.
II. They wanted to end colonial control over Indian economy.
III. They joined civil disobedience movement and give financial help and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
IV. Most Businessman came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist, trade and industry would gain without any barriers.
V. They were afraid of the spread of militant activities and worried by giving influence of socialism among the younger members of the Congress.
VI. After the failure of the Round table conference, business group were no longer uniformly enthusiastic in the civil disobedience movement.

Question. How did the Indian merchants and industrialists protect their interest?
Answer : I. To organize business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and commercial Congress in 1920 end the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and industries (FICCI) in 1927.
II. These organizations were led by Purushottam Das Thakur Das and G.D. Birla.
III. The Industrialists attacked the Colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the civil disobedience movement when it was first launched.
IV. They gave financial help and refused to buy or sell imported goods.

Question. How was civil disobedience movement different from the non-cooperation movement?
Answer : I. The Non-cooperation movement was started to support the Khilafat movement in 1920 while the civil disobedience movement was started to get complete Independence in 1930.
II. The non-cooperation movement was the first mass Movement in which large number of peasants participated where as in civil disobedience movement a large number of women participated.
III. People were asked not to co-operate with British during the non-cooperation movement, whereas people were asked not to co-operate and to violate colonial laws in civil disobedience movement.

Question. What were the causes for the peasants movement in Awadh? How did they organize it?
Answer : • The movement in Awadh was against talukdars and landlords.
• They demanded high amount of revenue from the peasants.
• The movement was led by Sanyasi Baba Ramchandra.
• Peasants had to do begaar and work at landlords’ farms without any payment.
• The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begaar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
• In many places ‘Nai-dhobi bandhs’ were organized by panchayats.

Question. Give an example to prove that the tribal peasants interpreted the message of non-cooperation Movement in different way.
How did the non-cooperation Movement unfold in hills or among the tribals?
Answer : Movement among tribals-
• NCM among the tribals was started in gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh.
• Started in the form of militant guerrilla movement against the British .
• British had closed large area of forest land and they also prevented the tribals to enter into it.
• This caused the wide spread anger among the tribals against the British .
• Not only the livelihood was affected But the tribal saw it as the attack on their traditional right.
• Hence, tribals joined the non-cooperation movement.

Question. Describe the civil disobedience movement. How did it become a mass movement?
Answer : I. The Dandi March marked the beginning of the civil disobedience movement.
II. People asked not only to refuse co-operation with the British but also to break colonial laws.
III. Thousands people broke the salt law and manufactured salt in different part of the country.
IV. They also demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
V. As the movement spread, foreign clothes were boycotted.
VI. Liquor shops were picketed.
VII. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari Taxes.
VIII. Village officials resigned in many places.
IX. Forest people violated forest laws by going into reserved forest to collect wood and graze cattles.

Question. Why did Gandhiji and Dr Ambedkar come into a conflict in the second round table conference? What was the result?
Explain the circumstances leading to the Poona pact 1932. What are its provisions?
I. Dr. Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for the Dalits.
II. Gandhi ji opposed it because Gandhi ji believed that separate electorates for the dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.
III. When the British government granted Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhi ji began a fast unto death.
IV. Ambedkar finally accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona pact of September 1932. VI. It give the depressed a reserved seats in provincial and Central legislative councils but they were to be voted in by the general electorates.

Question. What were the limits of the civil disobedience movement?
Answer : I. For long, the Congress had ignored the dalits, fearing of offending the Sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. Thereforedalits did not participate in the movement.
II. Some of the Muslim political organizations did not respond to the civil disobedience movement since Congress is more associated with Hindu associations.
III. The relationship between the poor peasants and Congress remained uncertain during this period. Congress did not want to upset the rich peasants and landlords and was unwilling to support campaigns of the poor peasants in most places.

Question. Why did Gandhi ji call off civil disobedience movement?
Answer : I. Most of the Congress leaders were arrested in April 1930.
II. Angry crowds demonstrated in the street of Peshawar, facing police firing.
III. Hundreds were killed and thousands were injured.
IV. When Mahatma Gandhi was arrested, industrial workers in Solapur attacked police post, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations.
V. The frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression.
VI. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten up and 1 lac people were arrested.
In such situation, Mahatma Gandhi decided to call of the moment.

Question. Why did the poor peasants not join the civil disobedience movement? Why the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress was remained uncertain during civil disobedience movement?
Answer : I. The poor peasants were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand.
II. Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords.
III. As the depression continued and cash incomes decreased, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rents.
IV. They wanted to be remitted (छुटकारा) from the unpaid rent of the landlord.
V. They joined a variety of radical movements and campaigns.
VI. Congress did not want to upset that rich peasants and landlords and was unwilling to support “no rent campaigns” of the poor peasants in most places.
So the relationship between the poor peasants and Congress remained uncertain.

Question. Describe briefly any three economic effects of the non-cooperation movement.
Answer : I. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in the huge bonfires.
II. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921and 1922. Its value dropped from rupees 102 crore to Rupees 57 crore.
III. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods.

Question. How had a variety of cultural processes developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century? Explain with examples.
“Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.
Answer : We had a variety of cultural processes that developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century these are following:
• Cultural Processes: Figures or images helped to create an image with which people identify their Nation. Abanindranath Tagore painted the famous image of Bharat Mata as she is calm, divine and spiritual.
• Indian Folklore: Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to receive Indian folklore. Folk tales gave a true picture of the traditional culture.
• National Symbols: During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolor flag was designed. Gandhi ji also designed the Swrajflag in 1921.
• Reinterpretation of History: The British saw Indians as backward, primitive and incapable of governing. In response, Indian began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements.
• New Hymns: “VandeMataram” and “Jan gan man” wrote to create a sense of collective belonging in Indians.

Question. Describe the participation of women in the civil disobedience movement. Why did the participation of women in large numbers in the movement not bring any radical change in the position of Indian women?
Answer : I. An important feature of the civil disobedience movement was the large scale participation of women.
II. Thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him during Gandhiji’s salt march.
III. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, picketed foreign cloths and liquor shops.
IV. Many of them went to jail.
V. In urban areas, these women were from high caste families and in rural areas they came from a rich peasant household.
VI. Moved by Gandhi Ji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
VII. Gandhiji believed that it was the duty of women to look after home and be a good mother and wife.
VIII. After discouraged by Gandhiji and Congress, women did not hold any position of authority within the Congress. Women remained their symbolic presence in congress.

Question. Describe the participation of different social groups in the civil disobedience movement. Why did they join the movement?
Answer : I. In the countryside, rich peasant communities like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement.
II. They were producers of commercial crop and they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling price.
III. Indian merchants and industrialists wanted protection against Import of foreign goods. They also financially help the movement. They wanted to end colonial control over Indian economy. They joined civil disobedience movement and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
IV. Another important feature of the civil disobedience movement was the large scale participation of women. During Gandhiji’S salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him. They participated in the protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
V. There were strikes by railway workers in 1930 and dock workers in 1932. In 1930 thousands of workers in chhotanagpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.

Question. Why did the rich peasant communities join the civil disobedience movement? Why did not they join when it was re-launched in 1932?
Answer : I. In the countryside, rich peasant communities like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh joined the movement.
II. Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
III. As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
IV. The government refused to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread anger among them.
V. These rich peasants were actively participated in the boycott programs.
VI. For them the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
VII. But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the deduction in revenue rates.
Therefore, when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participate.

Question. What were the reasons for the launching of the Non-cooperation movement? OR What was Gandhiji’s idea behind launching it as stated in his book Hind Swaraj?
Why Gandhiji decided to launch non co-operation movement?
Answer : • Gandhi ji declared in his book “Hind Swaraj” in 1909.
• He believed that British rule was established in India with the co-operation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation.
• If Indian refused to co-operate British rule in India, it would collapse within a year.
• And finally we would achieve Swaraj.

Question. How did the non-cooperation movement unfold? Who participated in it? How did different social group conceive of the idea of Non-Cooperation?
How did non co-operation movement become a mass movement?
How did different social groups conceive the idea of non- cooperation?
Answer : • Movement in towns steps taken for the success of non cooperation movementI. In towns, the moment started with middle class participation in the cities.
• Thousands of students left their government controlled schools and colleges.
• Headmaster and teachers resigned.
• Lawyers give up their legal practices.
• Foreign goods were boycotted.
• Foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfire.
• Liquor shops were picketed.
• The Council elections were boycotted.